Bioscience Biotechnology Research Communications

An International  Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access Journal

P-ISSN: 0974-6455 E-ISSN: 2321-4007

Bioscience Biotechnology Research Communications

An Open Access International Journal

Jashodeb Arjun* and Rajesh Paul

* Department of Zoology, Silapathar Science College (P.G.), Assam
Science Technology University, Silapathar, Assam. , India

Corresponding auhor

Article Publishing History

Received: 15/04/2023

Accepted After Revision: 25/06/2023


The solitary aim of our investigation was to explore the avian species richness in Lumding Forest Reserve  area, Assam.The survey was cooperated by the team of Zoological Survey of  India.  After extended survey, 146 species of birds were spotted from Lumding Forest Reserve area, where birds from 17 different  orders (Passeriformes, Columbiformes, Accipitriformes ,  Piciformes, Bucerotiformes ,Gruiformes, Apodiformes, Coraciiformes, Trogoniformes, Cuculiformes, Galliformes, Ciconiiformes, Suliformes , Pelecaniformes , Strigiformes, Anseriformes, Charadriiformes) and 76 families were put down.

The bird species thus obtained were compared with the IUCN Red list from where interesting cum astonishing facts were acquired. The IUCN  Red list informed us that, 92.51% bird species spotted were under Least Concern category, where as 3.4% were Near Threatened, 2.72% were Vulnerable, 0.68% were Critically Endangered and Endangered. We considered ourselves successful for obtaining such astouned statistics about the avian species plentitude of  Lumding  Forest Reserve, which will provoke other researchers to come forward and explore more about this place.


Lumding Forest Reserve Area, Birds, Biodiversity, IUCN

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Alike other animals, birds too are a remarkable part of ecosystem with amazing ecological values. They cover almost every corner of the planet. Globally there exists around 9000 species of birds of which india contributes 13% with 1300 species  (Grimmett et al., 2000). Birds are watcher’s delight, with their colorful appreance and melodious chirping, they not only increase the beauty of nature and provide intangible aesthetic enjoyment; they play many roles in ecosysytem (Watanuki et al.,2022). There exists a strong interdependence between birds and other organisms of this universe.

These warm blooded vertebrates help in pollination; birds like bulbul, parakeets help in seed dispersal; act as scavengers;  helps in pest control in crop fields; manages wetland grazing species like snails, periwinkles; acts as proficient gardeners(Beal et al., 2021) . Prior to their sensitiveness to habitat change, birds are considered as one of the most important indicators of environmental change (Pitera et al., 2021). They play significant role in controlling insect outbreak. Birds like Barn Swallow helps in mosquito control by eating around 850 mosquitoes each day (Vinod et al., 2023).

Lumding is a railway town and a municipal board of Nagaon district. It is the regional divisional headquarter of North –Eastern Frontier Railway, a big important junction and famous for Barak Valley Express, Cachar Express, Hill Queen Express, Agartala-Lumding Express, etc., which passes through scenic routes (Pawar and Salunkhe, 2014). It is also famous for cultural and educational excellence.

Initiated in 1964, The International Union for Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species has become the most reliable source regarding conservation of floral and faunal species of the earth (Miskelly et al., 2019). It accords information regarding the population, habitat, threats and conservation initiatives that assists us to take necessary steps towards protection. The Red List is an indicator of the exact position of worlds biodiversity (Sauve et al., 2021). It helps to protect natural resources on which we are dependent for survival. Hence, during our investigation, we checked our findings in the Red List to assure their future existence and safety.


Lumding is a hilly landscape which is covered with dense reserve forest from all sides. Summers are burning here as well as winters can be chilling. Monsoon covers rainfall around 60-125mm. The only hill station of Assam i.e. Haflong is very closer to Lumding. Climate remaining favourable for agricultural practices (Arya and Rao, 2014).

Figure 1: Study area map


Species density and diversity can be good indicators for measuring abundance of birds in any locality (Javed and Rahmani, 1993). Our survey was carried out from January,2016 to December,2018, where almost all the seasons were covered like Summer (March-June) and Winter (November-March).

For spotting, following methods were preferred,

(1) point count method, (2) direct count method & (3) area search method.

Bird counting was performed from 5.00-8.00 am (morning) and 4.00-6.00 pm (evening). Various species of birds were observed during survey peroid. Observation was performed with the help of field binoculars (10×40). Pictures were captured with Digital Canon EOS 1300D, 18MP DSLR. Renouned Ornithologist Dr. Ghosh and his team from Zoological Survey of  India, remained physically present and helped in species identification. Species identification was confirmed with the help of “ Books of Birds of the Indian subcontinent” (Grimmett et al., 2000) and book of Salim Ali “The Book of Indian Birds”, Wikipedia and other resources.

Table 1: Checklist of avian fauna of Lumding Forest Reserve area



Feeding habits* IUCN Red List (2019-22) status**


1 Passeriformes


































































































































Pycnonotidae Red vented bulbul Pycnonotus cafer Nectivorous, Frugivorous, Insectivorous,


Least Concern
2 Campephagidae Scarlet minivet Pericrocotus speciosus Insectivorous, Carnivorous Ophiophagous Least Concern
3 Oriolidae



Black headed oriole Oriolus larvatus Frugivorous, Insectivorous Least Concern
4 Indian Golden oriole Oriolus kundoo Frugivorous, Insectivorous, Nectivorous Least Concern
5 Pittidae


Black crown pitta Erythropitta ussheri Carnivorous Least Concern
6 Indian pitta



Pitta brachyura Carnivorous, Insectivorous, Least Concern
7 Orididae Maroon oriole Oriolus traillii Insectivorous,, Nectivorous Least Concern
8 Alaudidae



Eastern skylark

( Oriental skylark)

Alauda gulgula Granivorous Least Concern
9 Dicruridae



Racket tailed drongo Dicrorus paradiseus Insectivorous,, Nectivorous Least Concern
10 Black drongo Dicrorus macrocercus Insectivorous, Least Concern
11 Ashy drongo Dicrorus leucophaeus Insectivorous Least Concern
12 Bronzed drongo


Dicrurus aeneus Insectivorous Least Concern
13 Nectariniidae Nepal sunbird Aethopyga nipalensis Nectivorous Least Concern
14 Sturnidae


Hill myna Gracula religiosa Omnivorous , Insectivorous, Frugivorous Least Concern


15 Laniidae





White crowned shrike Eurocephalus anguitimens Insectivorous , Carnivorous Least Concern
16 Bull headed shrike Lanius bucephalus Insectivorous , Carnivorous Least Concern
17 Long tailed fiscal shrike


Larius collaris Insectivorous , Carnivorous Least Concern
18 Leiothrichidae Jungle babbler


Argya striata Insectivorous Least Concern
19 Pycnonotidae



Black headed bulbul Pycnonotus atriceps Insectivorous, Frugivorous Least Concern


20 Hirundinidae


Red rumped swallow Cecropis daurica Insectivorous Least Concern
21 Passeri Fairy blue bird Irena puella Insectivorous, Nectivorous Least Concern
22 Chloropseidae





Gold fronted leafbird Chroropsis aurifrons Omnivorous Least Concern
23 Orange bellied leafbird Chloropsis hard wickii Insectivorous, Nectivorous Least Concern



Pycnonotidae Brown eared bulbul Hypsipetes amaurotis Insectivorous, Frugivorous, Nectivorous Least Concern
25 Mectarinidae


Large browed wagtail Motacilla moderaspatensis Insectivorous Least Concern
26 Estrildidae Spotted munia Lonchura punctulata Granivorous Least Concern
27 Black headed munia Lonchura malacca Granivorous Least Concern
28 Ploceidae Baya weaver bird



Ploceus philippinus Granivorous, Insectivorous Least Concern
29 Dicruridae Lesser racket tailed drongo


Dicrurus remifer Insectivorous Least Concern
30 Muscicapidae


White rumped magpie Copsychus malabaricus Insectivorous , Carnivorous Least Concern
31 Sturnidae


Common myna Acridotheres tristis Insectivorous, Granivorous, Carnivorous, Omnivorous Least Concern
32 White headed starling Sturnia erythropygia


Insectivorous Least Concern
33 Brahminy starling Sturnus pagodarum Omnivorous Least Concern
34 Jungle myna Acridotheres fuscus Omnivorous Least Concern
35 Indian Pied myna Gracupica contra Omnivorous Least Concern
36 Motacilladae Yellow wagtail Motacilla flava Insectivorous Least Concern
37 Citrine wagtail Motacilla citriola Insectivorous Least Concern
38 Turdidae


Common black bird Turdus merula Omnivorous Least Concern
39 Vangidae


Indian wood shrike Tephrodornis pondicerianus Insectivorous Least Concern
40 Motacilladae Indian paddy field pipit Anthus rufulus Insectivorous Least Concern
41 Paridae Great tit Parus major Insectivorous Least Concern
42 Alaudidae


Black lark Melanocorypha yeltoniensis Insectivorous Least Concern
43 Sand lark Alaudala raytal Insectivorous Least Concern
44 Corvidae


Jungle crow Corvus culminatus Frugivorous Least Concern
45 House crow Corvus splendens Omnivorous Least Concern
46 Monarchidae Paradise flycatcher Terepsiphone  paradisi Insectivorous Least Concern
47 Muscicapidae Blue flycatcher Cyornis tickelliae Carnivorous Least Concern
48 Chloropseidae Leaf bird Chloropsis flavipennis Insectivorous, Frugivorous, Nectivorous Vulnerable
49 Laniidae Brown shrike Lanius cristatus Insectivorous Least Concern
50 Muscicapidae


Shama bird Copsychus malabaricus Insectivorous, Frugivorous Least Concern
51 Slaty backed forktail bird Enicurus schistaceus Carnivorous Least Concern
52 Plumbeous redstart Rhyacornis fuliginosa Insectivorous, Carnivorous Least Concern
53 Leiothrichidae





Grey sibia Heterophasia gracilis Insectivorous, Frugivorous Least Concern



Jungle babbler Turdoides striata Insectivorous, Granivorous, Nectivorous Least Concern
55 Common babbler Argya  caudata Omnivorous Least Concern
56 White crowned shrike Eurocephalus ruppelli Carnivorous Least Concern
57 Psittaculidae Alexandrine parakeet Psittacula eupatria Omnivorous Near Threatened
58 Laniidae Red breasted parakeet Psittacula alexandri Frugivorous, Granivorous Near Threatened
59 Pnoepygidae


Pygmy cupwing Pnoepyga pusilla Insectivorous Least Concern
60 Pellorneidae Brown capped babbler Pellomeum fuscocapillus Insectivorous Least Concern
61 Marsh spotted babbler Pellomeum palustre Insectivorous Vulnerable
62 Paradoxornithidae Grey headed parrot bill Psittiparus gularis Insectivorous Least Concern
63 Corvidae


Red whiskered bulbul Pycnonotus jocosus Insectivorous, Frugivorous Least Concern
64 Black browed treepie Dendrocitta frontalis Carnivorous Least Concern
65 Passeridae House sparrow Passer domesticus Insectivorous Least Concern
66 Tree sparrow Passer montanus Insectivorous Least Concern
67 Paridae


Oriental tit Parus minor Omnivorous, Molluscivorous Least Concern
68 Anatidae Pin tail duck Anas acuta Granivorous Least Concern
69 Piciformes



Megalaimidae Large green barbet Psilopogon zeylanicus Frugivorous, Insectivorous


Least Concern
70 Coppersmith barbet Psilopogon


Frugivorous Least Concern
71 Picidae


Golden backed woodpecker Dinopium benghalense Insectivorous Least Concern
72 Large golden backed woodpecker Chrysocolaptes guttacristatus Frugivorous, Insectivorous, Granivorous Least Concern
73 Rufous piculet Sasia abnormis Insectivorous,


Least Concern
74 Darjeeling pied woodpecker Dendrocopos darjellensis Insectivorous Least Concern
75 Heart spotted woodpecker Hemicircus canente Insectivorous Least Concern
76 Large yellow fronted woodpecker Melanerpes flavifrons Insectivorous, Frugivorous Least Concern
77 Rufous woodpecker Micropternus brachyurus Insectivorous, Frugivorous, Nectivorous


Least Concern
78 Bucerotiformes Bucerotidae Grey hornbill Ocyceros  birostris Granivorous Least Concern


79 Upupidae Hoopoe Upupa  sp Insectivorous , Carnivorous Least Concern
80 Gruiformes Rallidae Coot Fulica atra Omnivorous Least Concern


81 Rallidae


Common moorhen Gallinula chloropus Omnivorous Least Concern
82 Western swamphen Porphyrio porphyrio Omnivorous Least Concern
83 Ardeidae


Little egret Egretta garzetta Carnivorous Least Concern
84 Apodiformes Trochilidae Ruby throated hummingbird Archilochus colubris Insectivorous, Least Concern
85 Accipitriformes Accipitridae



Indian white rumped vulture Gyps bengalensis Carnivorous Critically Endangered
86 Shikra ( Indian shikra) Accipiter badius Insectivorous Least Concern
87 Pariah kite Milvus migrans Carnivorous, Avivorous Least Concern
88 Pied harrier Circus melanoleucos Insectivorous,


Least Concern
89 Crested serpent eagle


Spilornis cheela Insectivorous,


Least Concern
90 Black winged kite Elanus caeruleus Insectivorous Least Concern
91 Black eared baza Aviceda leuphotes


Insectivorous Least Concern
92 Changeable hawk eagle Nisaetus cirrhatus Avivorous Least Concern
93 Crested serpent eagle Spilornis cheela Carnivorous, Avivorous, Carnivorous Least Concern
94 White tailed eagle Haliaeetus albicilla Carnivorous Least Concern
95 Columbiformes Columbidae Spotted dove Stiloopelia chinensis Frugivorous, Granivorous, Insectivorous Least Concern
96 Ring necked dove Streptopelia capicola Frugivorous, Granivorous, Insectivorous Least Concern
97 Emerald dove Chalcophaps indica Frugivorous Least Concern
98 Red turtle dove Streptopelia  tranque baricha Granivorous, Least Concern


99 Green imperial pigeon Ducula aenea Granivorous Near Threatened
100 Rock pigeon Columba livia Granivorous, Frugivorous, Insectivorous Least Concern


101 Imperial pigeon Dacula  sp Frugivorous Least Concern
102 Spotted dove Spoilopelia chinenois Insectivorous Least Concern
103 Coraciiformes





Chestnut headed bee eater Merops leschenaulti Insectivorous Least Concern


104 Green bee eater Merops orientalis Insectivorous , Carnivorous Least Concern
105 Alcedinidae


White breasted kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis Insectivorous , Carnivorous Least Concern
106 Common kingfisher Alcedo anthis bengalensis Carnivorous, Insectivorous, Piscivorous Least Concern
107 Trogoniformes Trogonidae


Red headed trogon Harpactes erythrocephalus Insectivorous Least Concern
108 Cuculiformes


Cuculidae Crow pheasant Centropus sinensis Carnivorous Least Concern
109 Asian koel Eudynamys scolopaceus Omnivorous Least Concern












Black francolin Francolinus francolinus Insectivorous Least Concern
111 Grey partridge Perdix perdix Insectivorous, Granivorous Least Concern
112 Jungle bush quail Perdicula asiatica Frugivorous , Granivorous Least Concern
113 Red jungle fowl Gallus gallus Frugivorous Least Concern
114 Kalij pheasant Lophura leucomelanos Omnivorous Least Concern
115 Dicacidae Plain coloured flower pecker Diacacum minullum Frugivorous, Nectivorous Least Concern
116 Pycnorotidae Black bulbul Hypsipetes leucocephalus Insectivorous, Granivorous Least Concern
117 Ciconiiformes Ciconiidae


Greater adjutant Leptoptilos dubius Omnivorous,


118 Lesser adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus Omnivorous,

Carnivorous, Piscivorous

119 Black necked stork Ephippiorhynctus asiaticus Carnivorous Near Threatened
120 Scaly breasted stork Anastomus oscitans Carnivorous, Molluscivorous Least Concern
121 Suliformes











Little cormorant Microcarbo niger Carnivorous Least Concern
122 Large cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo Carnivorous Least Concern


Indian cormorant Phalacrocorax fusicollis Carnivorous Least Concern
124 Anhingidae Darter Anhinga sp Piscivorous


Near threatened
125 Pelecaniformes




Great egret Ardea alba Carnivorous Least Concern
126 Medium egret Ardea intermedia Carnivorous Least Concern
127 Cattle erget Bubulcus ibis Carnivorous Least Concern
128 Yellow bittern Ixobrychus sinensis Carnivorous Least Concern
129 Chinese pond heron Ardeola bacchus Carnivorous Least Concern
130 Indian pond heron Ardeola grayii Carnivorous Least Concern
131 Night  heron Nycticorax nyctanassa Insectivorous,



Least Concern
132 Bittern Botaurus stephens Carnivorous Least Concern
133 Tiger heron Tigrisoma lineatum Carnivorous Least Concern
134 Strigiformes Strigidae


Jungle owlet Glaucidium radiatum Insectivorous Least Concern
135 Brown fish owl Ketupa zeylonensis Piscivorous Least Concern
136 Tytonidae Barn owl Tyto alba Carnivorous Least Concern
137 Anseriformes



Anatidae Common pochard Aythya ferina Molluscivorous, Insectivorous Vulnerable
138 Lesser whistling duck Dendrocygna  javanica Gregarious Least Concern
139 Brahminy duck Tadorma ferruginea Omnivorous Least Concern
140 Charadriiformes jacanidae


Pheasant tailed jacana Hydrophasianus chirurgus Insectivorous, Molluscivorous Least Concern
141 Bronze winged jacana Metopidius indicus Insectivorous Least Concern
142 Charadriidae


Red wattled lapwing Vanellus indicus Insectivorous, Granivorous,


Least Concern
143 Spur winged lapwing Vanellus spinosus Insectivorous Least Concern
144 Laridae River tern Sterna aurantia Insectivorous,


145 Indian robin


Saxicoloides fulicatus Insectivorous Least Concern
146 Scolopacidae


Long toed stint Calidris subminuta Insectivorous, Molluscivorous, Granivorous Least Concern

*Piscivorous: fish eater birds; Palynivorousbirds: pollen eater birds;  Nectivorous: necter eater birds; Ophiophagous: snake eater birds;  Mucivorous: mucus eater birds;  Molluscivorous: mollusce eater birds; Granivorous:  grain eater birds; Frugivorous: fruit eater birds;  Carnivorous: meat eater birds; Avivorous:  bird eater birds.

**Extinct in the wild (EW) – Known only to survive in captivity;  Extinct (EX) – No known individuals remaining;  Critically Endangered (CR) – Extremely high risk of extinction in the wild;  Endangered (EN) – High risk of extinction in the wild;  Vulnerable (VU) – High risk of endangeredment in the wild;  Near Threatened (NT) – Likely to become endangered soon;  Least Concern (LC) – Lowest risk. Does not qualify for a more at risk category;  Data Deficient (DD) – Not enough data to assess its risk of extinction;  Not Evaluated (NE) – Has not yet ben evaluated against the criteria.

Figure 2:  Graphical representation showing order wise abundance
of avian fauna in Lumding Forest Reserve area

Figure3: Graphical representation showing IUCN status of avian
fauna spotted in Lumding Forest Reserve area

Figure4: Pictures of some birds spotted from Lumding Forest Reserve area

Figure 5: Pictures of some birds spotted from Lumding Forest Reserve area


North-East India refers to the easternmost region of India consisting of contiguous seven sister states, Sikkim and parts of North Bengal (district of Darjeeling , Jalpaiguri and Kochbihar) (Javed and Rahmani, 1993). North East India is ethnically distinct from the other states of India, linguistically the region is distinguished by preponderance of Tibeto- Burman languages. Strong ethnic cultures that had escaped sanskritization effects permeate the region. The eight states from a special category is officially recognized (Peralta et al., 2020).

Lumding Reserve Forest is a compact large block of forest, measuring 252.9 sq. Kms and comparatively has less human disturbance. This forest gives shelter to a large variety of floral as well as faunal species (Arya and Rao, 2014). As the forest area of neighbouring Karbi Anglong district and N.C.Hills district are affected by shifting cultivation, the herbs of Asiatic Elephant takes shelter in Lumding Reserve Forest (Joshi and Shrivastava, 2012).

The principal type of forest found in Lumding is degraded moist mixed deciduous forest type (Khan, Rao and Wani, 2012). Lumding Reserve Forest is also habitat for a huge variety of medicinal plants like Sarpagandha, Basaka, Ahoi, Hilikha, etc. Among all the floral species Teak and Gamari are found to dominate in Lumding Reserve Forest (Javed and Rahmani, 1993). Among the climbers, Mikennia sp. predominates where canopy is open and other climbers are Bridelia sp., Butea parviflora, disoscorea sp., Clematis sp. . Himalayan black bear, Clouded Leopard, Crab eating mongoose, Slow loris, Assamese Macaque, Hoolock gibbon, Asiatic jackal,etc. comes under faunal diversity of Lumding.

146 species of birds were spotted from Lumding Forest Reserve area during our survey; Of which, 17 different avian orders including Passeriformes, Columbiformes, Accipitriformes ,  Piciformes, Bucerotiformes ,Gruiformes, Apodiformes, Coraciiformes, Trogoniformes, Cuculiformes, Galliformes, Ciconiiformes, Suliformes , Pelecaniformes , Strigiformes, Anseriformes, Charadriiformes were detected. Noticably, Passeriformes showed highest species frequency with 46.25% abundance which was followed by Accipitriformes (6.8%), Piciformes and Pelecaniformes(6.12%) ; Columbiformes(5.44%); Galliformes and Charadriiformes(4.76%); Gruiformes, Coraciiformes, Suliformes, Ciconiiformes(2.72%); Strigiformes, Anseriformes(2.04%); Cuculiformes, Bucerotiformes (1.36%); Trogoniformes , Apodiformes (0.68%). Under 17 spotted orders, total 76 families were recorded. Passeriformes came out with maximum number of families (44).

The IUCN status of avian species richness of Lumding revealed that 92.51% birds of Limding are Least Concern indicating their sufficient existance, where as 3.4% are Near Threatened, 2.72%  are Vulnerable, 0.68% are Critically Endangered and Endangered. Birds like River tern, Common pochard, Lesser adjutant, Greater adjutant, Indian white rumped vulture, Marsh spotted babbler, Black necked stork , Alexandrine parakeet , Darter which were found under Critically Endangered,  Near Threatened, Vulnerable and Endangered category of  IUCN demands our attention to work for their conservation and protection from becoming extinct. 


Its extremely worrying that the number of Critically Endangered birds on the IUCN Red List continues to increase, despite successful conservation initiatives around the world”, says Simin Stuart, Chair of IUCN’s Species Survival Commission. Hence, it becomes immense important to work for the safety and security of birds at global level. Although our work was very small but we expect that it will motivate other researchers to work in this field so that rare species of birds can servive for long.


Authors are greatful to Dr. Ghosh (Ornithologist) and his team from Zoological Survey of  India, for their full hearted cooperation, involvement and remaining physically present during the investigation period and helping in identification of birds.


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