Bioscience Biotechnology Research Communications

An International  Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access Journal

P-ISSN: 0974-6455 E-ISSN: 2321-4007

Bioscience Biotechnology Research Communications

An Open Access International Journal

Gajanan A. Wagh1* and Tiwari, Prathmesh. D2

1,Biodiversity Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Shri Shivaji Science College, Amravati, Maharashtra, India. PIN– 444 603

Corresponding author email:

Article Publishing History

Received: 11/04/2020

Accepted After Revision: 29/05/2020


India is a very rapidly growing country, with respect to its economy, world recognition, infrastrcture and industrilization. These surfacing industries need a large area for the operation and shouldn’t near the human settelments, generally the city outskirts grasslands are choosen for convinience. This leads to loss of  well settled grassland habitat or a wetland and therefore  many species fostering in these habitas also get affected due to this. This study is selected because there is a lack of data concerning the avian diversity and their abundance associated to the grasslands and wetlands of wide spread Maharashtra Industrial Development Co-operation (MIDC) areas specifically. The study area is a richly diversified, with patches of grassland and wetland in all over the MIDC area. Hence this attempt has been made to know the present status of the avian fauna and its diversity associated with the grasslands and wetlands in MIDC area near Amravati  a  city having tropical climate . The study was carried out in November 2018 to February 2019 for four Months and monthly four visits were made in the study area. Line transect and belt transect methods of quantification was used for grassland bird study and point transect was used for wetland birds. Total 221 species were reported in the study area, out of which 126 birds were observed in grassland area and 95 species were recorded from the wetlands. In grassland a total of 1473 individuals from all the species were reported and from wetland 909 individuals were reported. The diversity index, species evenness, relative density, species abundance for grassland were 3.96, 0.81, 0-5.43 and 80 whereas 3.87, 0.85, 0-7.7 and 70 for wetland respectively. These entire parameters exhibit high avian faunal existence in MIDC area of Amravati. This indicates that the MIDC grasslands and wetlands provide a very rich avian diversity. The study showed a preliminary data regarding avian diversity and abundance in MIDC area of Amravati.  But it would be useful for the study of environmental impacts of industrialization on bird population and diversity.


Avian species, Diversity, Abundance, grassland, wetland and MIDC Amravati.

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Wagh G. A, Prathmesh T.D. On the Diversity and Abundance of Avian Species from Grassland and Wetland Areas of an Industrial Area of Tropical Maharashtra. Biosc.Biotech.Res.Comm. 2020;13(2).

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Wagh G. A, Prathmesh T.D. On the Diversity and Abundance of Avian Species from Grassland and Wetland Areas of an Industrial Area of Tropical Maharashtra. Biosc.Biotech.Res.Comm. 2020;13(2). Available from:

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The Indian subcontinent, a part of vast Oriental biogeographic regions, is very rich in bio-diversity. India hosts 1300 species of birds out of the 9000 of the total birds in the world, constituting 13 percent of the total bird population and thus is an area of high avian diversity. Bird fauna of India represents 48 families out of the total 75 families in the world. Ali and Ripley (1987) considered 176 species endemic to Indian subcontinent. Grasslands, Wetlands, Bushlands, Forests provide appropriate dwelling places for these organisms. Out of 1300 species of Indian subcontinent (Grimmett et al., 2009) more than 577 species have been reported from Maharashtra State (Kasambe  2016). In Vidarbha, a total of 417 species has been reported (Anon, 2009) and overall Amravati district has 392 birds species (Wadatkar et al., 2016).

Total Forest cover in Indian geography is 21.54 percent, wetlands (under the Ramsar Convention, excluding rivers) has an area of 60 million hectare, grasslands or bushlands occupy nearly 24 percent of the geographical area in India. Moreover, increasing demands on these fragile grassland ecosystems from multiple quarters, notably agricultural intensification, infrastructure development, mining, quarrying, industrial and commercial development, invasive species, and what is more, the very neglect of the common property resources, have eroded much of the native grasslands in the subcontinent with faunal diversity. However the biodiversity in the grassland is not studied to a depth. Comparative studies of avian community composition in different habitat inculding Forests, Wetlands, Grasslands and even in Urban and Sub-urban area can improve our knowledge of general pattern and process that characterize bird species and communities. Birds that depend on grassland and scrub vegetation was experienced a greater decline than any other habitats. Habitat loss and degradation of winter foraging and breeding ground observed leading causes of this decline. (Mankadan  2014, West , 2016, Johnson  et al., 2019).

Hence, the present study was carried out for the documentation of diversity, species richness, abundance and evenness of birds associated to the grasslands and wetlands and to know the present status of avian fauna in and around the MIDC area of Nandgaonpeth Amravati specifically.


Maharashtra Industrial Development Co-operation (M.I.D.C) was established in 1962. MIDC manages its 289 industrial complexes spread over 66,000 hectares of land. Amravati zone (21°01’20” N and 77°51’41” E), with an elevation of 364 meters, is divided in two Parts Amravati MIDC Badnera old bypass and MIDC Nandgaonpeth (NP). It is an area of 2800 hectare, distributed in Commercial, Industrial and Residential zones. The complete 2800 hectare is not a plot able land, 1124 hectare land occupied by textile industrial stakeholders. Rest of the 2800 hectare of land is divided amongst other zones, roads, open spaces, grasslands, wetland and other amenities. The selected study area was 24.79 kms, including grasslands, bush lands forests and wetland. All these lands were connected by major road-ways; one of such was Amravati-Nagpur Expressway (National Highway No. 6).

Figure 1: Map showing the study area (Nandgaonpeth MIDC area), Amravati M.S

Fig. 1: - Map showing the study area (Nandgaonpeth MIDC area), Amravati M.S

Figure 2: (A) Showing the grassland habitat and (B) Showing the wetland habitat in study area

Fig. 2: - (A) Showing the grassland habitat and (B) Showing the wetland habitat in study area

The study was carried out in November 2018 to February 2019 (Four Months) in MIDC Nandgaonpeth, Amravati.(Fig.1and2). For this study, 5 zones were chosen in study area. Monthly four visits were made in the study area. Observations were made during 7:30 am to 10:00 am and 4:00 pm to 6:30 pm. Various Quadrates were selected from the study area. Line Transect and Belt Transect bird survey methods of quantification were used for Grassland bird study and Point transect was used for Wetland birds.

Observation and Identification was done using Nikon 8-16×40 mm Binocular. Photographic observations were taken by using Nikon D90 DSLR Camera with 70-300mm and 80-400mm Zoom lens and 18-105mm normal lens. Nikon P600 Point-shoot Camera with a fixed lens, Go pro Hero 5 action camera was also used. Coordinates of the study area were recorded by GPS Garmin-60. Map of the study area was created using Arch Map 10.5 and Arch GIS software. Birds were identified and listed with the help of available resources, books and checklist (Ali S., and Ripley (1987), Grimmet et al., (2000). Rasmussen, P.C. and Anderton, P.C., (2012) and Checklist of Birds of Amravati District, Wadatkar et al.,(2016).

Data Analysis: All the recorded species were statistically analyzed using various parameters like Diversity Index (Shannon-Wiener’s Index; H’), Species Evenness, Relative Density, Species Abundance and Richness.

Shannon-Wiener Index (1963): – The recorded number of Individuals of each Species were Statistically evaluated using Species Diversity index (H’) {Shannon-Wiener Index},The values ranging between 0, indicating Low community complexity and 4 and above indicating High community complexity.

Relative Density: –

Abundance: – It is the number of birds of particular species as a percentage of total bird population of a given area.

Richness: – The number of species per sample is a measure of Richness. The more the species present in the sample, the “richer” the sample. Margalef’s index was used as a simple measure of species richness.

Margalef’s index=(S-1/In N

Where S=total number of Species, N=total number of individuals in the sample and In= natural logarithm.


Total 221 species were reported in the study area, out of which 126 birds were observed in Grassland area and 95 species were recorded from the Wetlands. In Grassland a total of 1473 individuals from all the bird species were reported and from Wetland 909 individuals were reported. The study area is a richly diversified, with patches of grassland and wetland in all over the MIDC area.(Table 1&2).In all 59 Families of birds were observed in the course of study. Out of which 35 families belong to the grassland birds, and 24 families are of wetland birds. In the families of grassland birds, maximum 14 Species were recorded from, Accipitridae family and in Wetland bird’s maximum 15 Species were recorded from two families, Scolopacidae and Anatidae each. (Fig.3&4).Accipitridae family includes (Raptors) Black kite, Eurasian Sparrow-hawk, Short-toed Snake Eagle, Harriers, Booted Eagle etc. while Scolopacidae family include (Waders) Sandpipers, Snipes, Spotted Redshank, Common Greenshank, Godwit, Stint, etc. Indian Silver bill recorded the maximum number of individuals (80) of a Grassland Species, and Black-winged Stilt recorded the maximum number of individuals (70) from Wetlands.

Table 1: Checklist of Grassland Avian Fauna from MIDC area(NP), Amravati

Sr no Common Name Scientific Name Family ST IUCN status
1 Grey Francolin Francolinus pondicerianus PHASIANIDAE (8) R LC
2 Painted Francolin Francolinus pictus R LC
3 Common Quail Coturnix coturnix W LC
4 Rain Quail Coturnix coromandelica R LC
5 Jungle Bush Quail Perdicula asiatica R LC
6 Rock Bush Quail Perdicula argoondah R LC
7 Barred Buttonquail Turnix suscitator R LC
8 Small Buttonquail Turnix sylvaticus R LC
9 Eurasian wryneck Jynx torquilla PICIDAE (4) W LC
10 Common Flameback Dinopium javanense R LC
11 Yellow-crowned Woodpecker Dendrocopos mahrattensis R LC
12 White-naped Woodpecker Chrysocolaptes festivus R LC
13 Coppersmith Barbet Megalaima haemacephala MEGALAIMIDAE (1) R LC
14 Common Hoopoe Upupa epops UPUPIDAE (1) R LC
15 Indian Roller Coracias benghalensis CORACIIDAE (2) R LC
16 European Roller Coracias garrulus PV NT
17 Green Bee-eater Merops orientalis MEROPIDAE (2) R LC
18 Pied Cuckoo Clamator jacobinus CUCULIDAE (6) BM LC
19 Common Hawk Cuckoo Hierococcyx varius R LC
20 Indian Cuckoo Cuculus micropterus R LC
21 Eurasian Cuckoo Cuculus canorus BM LC
22 Grey-bellied Cuckoo Cacomantis passerinus BM LC
23 Asian Koel Eudynamys scolopaceus R LC
24 Southern Coucal Centropus sinensis CENTROPODIDAE (1) R LC
25 Alexandrine Parakeet Psittacula eupatria PSITTACIDAE (3) R NT
26 Rose-ringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri R LC
27 Plum-headed Parakeet Psittacula cyanocephala R LC
28 Little Swift Apus affinis APODIDAE (2) R LC
29 Asian Palm Swift Cypsiurus balasiensis R LC
30 Common Barn Owl Tyto alba TYTONIDAE (1) R LC
31 Eurasian Eagle Owl Bubo bubo STRIGIDAE (4) R LC
32 Spotted Owlet Athene brama R LC
33 Brown Hawk-Owl Ninox scutulata R LC
34 Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus W LC
35 Indian Nightjar Caprimulgus asiaticus CAPRIMULGIDAE (2) R LC
36 Indian Jungle Nightjar Caprimulgus indicus R LC
37 Rock Pigeon Columba livia COLUMBIDAE (6) R LC
38 Yellow-footed Green Pigeon Treronphoenicoptera R LC
39 Eurasian Collard-Dove Streptopeliadecaocto R LC
40 Red Collard-Dove Streptopelia tranquebarica R LC
41 Spotted Dove Spilopelia chinensis R LC
42 Laughing Dove Spilopelia senegalensis R LC
43 Chestnut-bellied Sandgrouse Pterocles exustus PTEROCLIDAE (2) R LC
44 Painted Sandgrouse Pterocles indicus R LC
45 Yellow-wattled Lapwing Vanellus malabaricus CHARADRIIDAE (2) R LC
46 Red-wattled Lapwing Vanellus indicus R LC
47 Indian Courser Cursoriuscoro mandelicus GLAREOLIDAE (1) R LC
48 Black-shouldered Kite Elanus axillaris ACCIPITRIDAE (14) R LC
49 Black Kite Milvus migrans R LC
50 Black-eared Kite Milvus migranslineatus W LC
51 Shikra Accipiter badius R LC
52 Eurasian Sparrow Hawk Accipiter nisus W LC
53 Booted Eagle Hieraaetus pennatus W LC
54 Eurasian Marsh Harrier Circus aeruginosus W LC
55 Short-toed Snake Eagle Circaetus gallicus R LC
56 Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus W NT
57 Pied Harrier Circus melanoleucos W LC
58 Montagu’s Harrier Crcus pygragus W LC
59 Crested Serpent Eagle Spilornis cheela R LC
60 Oriental Honey Buzzard Pernis ptilorhynchus R LC
61 White-eyed Buzzard Butastur teesa R LC
62 Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus FALCONIDAE (5) R LC
63 Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni PV LC
64 Eurasian Hobby Falco subbuteo W LC
65 Red-necked Falcon Falco chicquera R NT
66 Amur Falcon Falco amurensis PV LC
67 Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis ARDEIDAE (1) R LC
68 Bay-backed Shrike Lanius vittatus LANIIDAE (3) R LC
69 Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach R LC
70 Brown Shrike Lanius cristatus W LC
71 Rufous Treepie Dendrocitta vagabunda CORVIDAE (7) R LC
72 House Crow Corvus splendens R LC
73 Small Minivet Pericrocotus cinnamomeus R LC
74 Black Drongo Dicrurus macrocercus R LC
75 White-browed Fantail Rhipidura aureola R LC
76 Asian Paradise-flycatcher Terpsiphone paradisi R LC
77 Common Iora Aegithina tiphia R LC
78 Oriental Magpie Robin Copsychus saularis MUSCICAPIDAE (8) R LC
79 Desert Wheatear Oenanthe  desertii W LC
80 Orange-headed Thrush Zoothera citrina R LC
81 Indian Robin Saxicoloides fulicatus R LC
82 Black Redstart Phoenicurus ochruros W LC
83 Indian Chat Cercomela fusca R LC
84 Common Stonechat Saxicola torquata W LC
85 Pied Bushchat Saxicola caprata R LC
86 Brahminy Starling Sturnia pagodarum STURNIDAE (5) R LC
87 Rosy Starling Sturnia roseus W LC
88 Asian Pied Starling Gracupica contra R LC
89 Common Myna Acridotheres tristis R LC
90 Chestnut-tailed Starling Sturnia malabarica W LC
91 Dusky Craig Martin Ptyonoprogne concolor HIRUNDINIDAE (4) R LC
92 Grey-throated Martin Riparia chinensis R LC
93 Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica W LC
94 Wire-tailed Swallow Hirundo smithii R LC
95 Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer PYCNONOTIDAE (1) R LC
96 Zitting Cisticola Cisticola juncidis CISTICOLIDAE (1)


97 Jungle Prinia Prinia sylvatica R LC
98 Plain Prinia Prinia inornate R LC
99 Ashy Prinia Prinia socialis R LC
100 Blyth’s Reed Warbler Acrocephalus dumetorum R LC
101 Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia curruca W LC
102 Common Tailor Bird Orthotomus sutorius R LC
103 Yellow-eyed Babbler Chrysomma sinense R LC
104 Large Grey Babbler Turdoides malcolmi R LC
105 Jungle Babbler Turdoides striatus R LC
106 Common Babbler Turdoides caudatus R LC
107 Indian Bush Lark Mirafra erythroptera ALAUDIDAE (6) R LC
108 Ashy-crowned Sparrow Lark Eremopterix griseus R LC
109 Sykes’s Lark Galerida deva R LC
110 Singing Bushlark Mirafra cantillllans W LC
111 Rufous-tailed Lark Ammomanes phoenicura R LC
112 Greater Short-toed Lark Calandrella brachydactyla W LC
113 Purple-rumped Sunbird Leptocomazeylonica NECTARINIDAE (2) R LC
114 Purple Sunbird Cinnyris asiaticus R LC
115 Paddyfield Pipit Anthus rufulus PASSERIDAE (8) R LC
116 Tawny Pipit Anthus campestris W LC
117 House Sparrow Passer domesticus R LC
118 Chestnut-shouldered Petronia Petronia xanthocollis R LC
119 Baya Weaver Ploceus philippinus R LC
120 Red Avadavat Amandava amandava R LC
121 Indian Silverbill Euodice malabarica R LC
122 Scaly-breasted Munia Lonchura punctulata R LC
123 Indian Pitta Pitta brachyura PITTIDAE (1) BM LC
124 Asian paradise Flycatcher Terpsiphone paradisi MONARCHIDAE (1) R LC
125 Grey-necked Bunting Emberiza buchanani FRINGILLIDAE (1) W LC
126 Oriental White-eye Zosterops palpebrosus ZOSTEROPIDAE R LC

R=Widespread Resident; W=Widespread Winter Visitor; PV=Passage Visitor; RM=Resident Migrant and BM=Breeding Migrant.

IUCN’s list of Threatened species (2018), categorized as Least Concerned (LC), Near Threatened (NT) and Vulnerable (VU).

Table 2: Checklist of Wetland Avian Fauna associated to MIDC area (N.P), Amravati.

Sr no Common Name Scientific Name Family ST IUCN status
1 Lesser Whistling Duck Dendro cygnajavanica DENDROCYGNDIAE (1) R LC
2 Bar-headed Goose Anser indicus ANATIDAE (15) W LC
3 Northern Pintail Anas acuta W LC
4 Common Teal Anas crecca W LC
5 Red-crested Pochard Rhedonessa rufina W LC
6 Common Pochard Aythya ferina W VU
7 Indian Spot-billed Duck Anas poecilorhyncha R LC
8 Gadwall Mareca strepera W LC
9 Garganey Anas querquedula W LC
10 Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula W LC
11 Northern Shoveller Anas clypeata W LC
12 Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope W LC
13 Ruddy (Brahminy) Duck Tadorna ferruginea W LC
14 Comb Duck (Knob-billed) Sarkidiornis melanotos R LC
15 Ferruginous Pochard Aythya nyroca W NT
16 Cotton Pigmy goose Nettapus coromandelianus R LC
17 Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis ALCEDINIDAE (1) R LC
18 White-throated Kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis HALCYONIDAE (1) R LC
19 Pied Kingfisher Ceryle rudis CERYLIDAE (1) R LC
20 White-breasted Waterhen Amanrornis phoenicurus RALLIDAE (3) R LC
21 Purple Swamphen Porphyrio porphyrio R LC
22 Common Coot Fulica atra R LC
23 Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa SCOLOPACIDAE (15) W NT
24 Pintail Snipe Gallinago stenura W LC
25 Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago W LC
26 Jack Snipe Lymnocryptes minimus W LC
27 Common Greenshank Tringa nebularia W LC
28 Spotted Redshank Tringa erythropus W LC
29 Green Sandpiper Tringa ochropus W LC
30 Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos W LC
31 Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola W LC
32 Marsh Sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis W LC
33 Little Stint Calidris minuta W LC
34 Temminck’s Stint Calidris temminckii W LC
35 Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea PV NT
36 Ruff Philomachus pugnax W LC
37 Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta PV LC
38 Greater-painted Snipe Rostratula benghalensis ROSTRATULIDAE (1) R LC
39 Pheasant-tailed Jacana Hydrophasianus chirurgus JACANIDAE (2) R LC
40 Bronze-winged Jacana Metopidius indicus R LC
41 Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus CHARADRIIDAE (4) RM LC
42 Little-ringed Plover Charadrius dubius W LC
43 Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus BM LC
44 Yellow-wattled Lapwing Vanellus malabaricus R LC
45 Red-wattled Lapwing Vanellus indicus GLAREOLIDAE (3) R LC
46 Small Pratincole Glareola lactea R LC
47 Collard Pratincole Glareola pratincola PV LC
48 Brown-headed Gull Larus brunnicephalus LARIDAE (5) W LC
49 River Tern Sterna aurantia RM NT
50 Little Tern Sterna albifrons BM LC
51 Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida W LC
52 Gull-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica PV LC
53 Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis PODICIPEDIDAE (1) R LC
54 Darter Anhinga melanogaster ANHINGIDAE (1) R NT
55 Little Cormorant Phalacrocorax niger PHALACROCORACIDAE (3) R LC
56 Indian Cormorant Phalacrocorax fuscicollis R LC
57 Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo R LC
58 Little Egret Egretta garzetta ARDEIDAE (10) R LC
59 Great Egret Casmerodius albus R LC
60 Intermediate Egret Mesophoyx intermedia R LC
61 Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis R LC
62 Grey Heron Ardea cinerea R LC
63 Purple Heron Ardea purpurea R LC
64 Indian Pond Heron Ardeola grayii R LC
65 Little Green Heron Butorides striatus R LC
66 Yellow Bittern Ixobrychus sinensis R LC
67 Black Bittern Ixobrychus flavicollis R LC
68 Black-headed Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus PHOENICOPTERIDAE (4) R NT
69 Black Ibis Pseudibis papillosa R LC
70 Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia RM LC
71 Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus W LC
72 Painted Stork Myeteria leucocephala CICONIIDAE (4) RM NT
73 Asian Openbill Anastomus oscitans W LC
74 Wooly-necked Stork Ciconia episcopus R V
75 Black Stork Ciconia nigra W LC
76 White Wagtail Motacilla alba PASSERIDAE (6) W LC
77 White-browed Wagtail Motacilla maderaspatensis R LC
78 Citrine Wagtail Motacilla citreola W LC
79 Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava W LC
80 Grey Wagtail Mptacilla cinereal W LC
81 Paddy-field Pipit Anthus rufulus R LC
82 Sykes’s Lark Galerida deva ALAUDIDAE (2) R LC
83 Ashy-crowned Sparrow Lark Eremopterix grisea R LC
84 Dusky-craig Martin Hirundo concolor HIRUNDINIDAE (7) R LC
85 Grey-throated Martin Riparia chinensis R LC
86 Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica W LC
87 Wire-tailed Swallow Hirundo smithii R LC
88 Red-rumped Swallow Hirundo daurica R LC
89 Streak-throated Swallow Hirundo fluvicola R LC
90 Pale Sand Martin Riparia diluta W LC
91 Clamorous Reed Warbler Acrocephalus stentoreus SYLVIIDAE (2) W LC
92 Booted Warbler Iduna caligata R LC
93 Indian Stone-Curlew Burhinus indicus BRUHINIDAE (2) R LC
94 Great Stone Curlew Esacu srecurvirostris R NT
95 Osprey Pandion haliaetus PANDIONIDAE (1) R LC

Recorded species from grasslands and Wetlands of MIDC (N.P.), Amravati were statistically analyzed using various parameters like Diversity Index (Shannon-Wiener’s Index; H’), Species Evenness, Relative Density, Species Abundance and Richness.

For Grassland bird Species:


H(max)= ln(N)= 4.836

Evenness=H/H(max)=0.813, (here H=3.936)

Shannon’s Diversity Index (H)=3.963 and Evenness= 0.813

For Wetland bird Species:


H(max)= ln (N)= 4.553

Evenness= H/H(max)= 0.850, (here H=3.874)

Shannon’s Diversity Index (H)=3.874 and Evenness=0.850

Figure 3: Graph showing family wise species number of birds associated to Grassland

Fig. 3. Graph showing family wise species number of birds associated to Grassland

Figure 4: Graph showing family wise species number of birds associated to Wetland

Fig. 4. Graph showing family wise species number of birds associated to Wetland.

Recorded species were also assorted according to the IUCN’s list of Threatened species (2018) categorized. In grassland 122 species belong to Least Concerned and 4 species belong to Near-Threatened (Fig. 5). In wetland 85 species belongs to LC, 8 species were of NT status and 2 species belonged to VU (Fig 6). All the recorded species were statistically analyzed using various parameters like Diversity Index (Shannon-Wiener’s Index; H’) and Species Evenness , Relative Density, Species Abundance and species Richness. The diversity index, species evenness, relative density, species abundance for Grassland were 3.96, 0.81, 0-5.43,80 and 17.13 whereas 3.87,0.85,0-7.7,70 and 13.79 for wetland respectively.(Table no.3).

Table 3: Summary of Data Analysis

Observations Grassland bird Species  

Wetland bird Species


Total Individuals 1473 909
Total Species 126 95
Species Richness 17.13 13.79
Shannon’s Diversity Index(H’) 3.963 3.874
Evenness 0.813 0.850
Relative Density 0 – 5.431 0 – 7.700
Abundance 80






Figure 5: Graph showing IUCN status of birds in Grassland

Fig.5Graph showing IUCN status of birds in Grassland

Figure 6: Graph showing IUCN status of birds in Wetland

Fig.6.Graph showing IUCN status of birds in Wetland

All the recorded species were categorized according to their presence in the study area. In grassland resident (R) constitutes 96 species, winter visitors (W) includes 23 species, breeding migrants (BM) includes 4 species and passage visitor (PV) 3 species (Fig. 7).Whereas in wetland, resident (R) constitutes 47 species, Winter visitors (W) constitutes 36 species, resident migrant (RM) include 4 species, breeding migrant (BM) include 2 Species and passage visitor (PV) include 3 species.(Fig. 8).

Figure 7: Graph showing percentage of (R) and (M) birds in Grassland.

Fig. 7 Graph showing percentage of (R) and (M) birds in Grassland.

The extensive grasslands in the region have a very rich fauna of birds, especially grassland birds. They have large patches of steppe grasslands which have places for Feeding and Roosting and hence, it is a preferred habitat for various migratory and resident birds. Birds like Munias, Larks, Pipits, Baya weavers, Sparrows, Coursers, Partridges and Quails were amongst the most occurring in the wide spread grassland. Apart from these grassland dwellers this area hosts a wide-ranging raptor population. Many migratory birds recite here for definite period of time, various Falcons, Harriers, Eagles, Kites and Hawks were recorded during the course of study.In the Wetland region; Storks, Sandpipers, Plovers, Ducks, Water hens, and many other waders were recorded. The wetland patches every-year hosts a wide range of migratory birds in huge numbers, Bar-headed Geese every-year come and rest here during their migration in 100 of numbers. Apart from these, little waders including Stints, Plovers and Sandpipers also turn up in large numbers.

Figure 8: Graph showing percentage of (R) and (M) birds in Wetland.

Fig. 8. Graph showing percentage of (R) and (M) birds in Wetland.

In grassland total of 91% were Least concerned and 9% were Near Threatened species (European Roller, Alexandrine Parakeet, Pallid Harrier, Red-necked Falcon) . Similarly, in wetland 90% was Least Concerned, 8% were Near Threatened (Ferruginous Pochard, Black-tailed Godwit, Curlew Sandpiper, River Tern, Darter, Black-headed Ibis, Painted Stork and Great Stone Curlew) and 2% were vulnerable species (Common Pochard and Wooly-necked Stork). Also, the Avian diversity was classified according their status, 96 Resident species, 23 Winter visitors species,4 Breeding Migrants species and 3 Passage visitor species in grassland patches and in Wetland, out of 95 Species, 47 Resident species, 36 Winter visitor species, 4 Resident Migrants species, 2 Breeding Migrants and 3 Passage visitors species.

The Grasslands hosts a wide variety of avian life. Large patches of land provide space for Roosting and a rich prey base too. Most occurring Family was the Accipitridae, which includes mostly Raptors. The preference of this type of habitats by these birds indicates their presence in the particular area for Prey base hunting, and Roosting purposes. However, the number of Individuals or Frequency of their sightings is very insignificant. Loss of habitat could be one reason leading to this. One of such very rare Raptor species visiting MIDC grassland Amravati, is the Amur Falcon Falco amurensis. The Amur Falcon is a fascinating migratory raptor. Every year, they migrate west through India and across the Arabian Sea to Southern Africa. Because of the long journey, stopover sites are important for these birds to maintain energy level. Amravati lies in their migratory Flyway, although it is very rare to sight the bird in the vast grasslands around the city. Also, a very rich number of Larks, Sliver Munia, Red Avadavat and Scaly-breasted Munia were also observed. This could be because, these species are particularly granivores and the habitat provides a lot of different grasses and seeds dispersed all over the place, which is the specific diet for them.

Family Scolopacidae and Anatidae, recorded the maximum number of species in the Wetlands. Snipes, Sandpipers, Shanks, Stints and Ducks and Goose, constitute this family. Bar-headed Goose Anser indicus another prominent winter visitor observed in the wetlands of the study area. Their number is fairly enough and each year they arrive in flocks of 70-100 individuals. Their abundant number is due to the Food preference they exhibit. Bar-headed Goose prefers small lush green grasses around the water bodies. Another winter sojourning bird is the Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala, is a member of Stork family, which is found in the wetlands, and prefer Fishes as major food item. Hence, their presence in the wetlands of study area is justified. Wading across the banks of the water body these birds constantly search for small fishes, snails etc. Apart from these, the wetlands host a variety of other ducks, migrating from right from the colder regions like Siberia, Russia to Africa, for various reasons.

From the report of birds of Banni Grassland Gujrat submitted by the Koladiya , (2011) . The grassland species of birds almost similar to our observations done in MIDC area, mostly the Raptor family was prominently seen at both the places i.e., Red-necked Falcon, Eurasian Hobby, Pallid and Pied Harriers, Eagles and Kites. Water birds like Red-crested Pochard, Common Pochard, Gadwall etc. were recorded from both the areas. This depicts the species diversity and richness of the grasslands and wetland associated to MIDC Amravati.

Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus, one of the rarest-winter migratory bird also showed its presence in the study area. this could be a positive sign, as their presence in the area marks the potential for new species to migrate here. Another unforeseen sighting from MIHAN Nagpur, a Lesser Florican female Sypheo tidesindica was recently recorded. It is endemic to Indian subcontinent and is declared as ‘Endangered’ species by the IUCN. MIHAN is an under developing Industrial Cargo-Hub, which was previously an extensive farm land. Due to relocation of the farms and conversion of left-over undeveloped areas as Grasslands, it could have established as a potential Habitat for Lesser Florican and hence, noted its presence. This could help in ‘Species Restoration’ of these birds in a newer developing grassland habitat might be leads to increasing their number, as the whole Vidarbha region was once their natural habitat. Apart from all the negative wreck, this takeover by MIDC authority of the farm lands, converting the unutilized part to grasslands, is causing their (Short-eared Owl, Lesser Florican), positive comeback too.

On statistically analyzing the observed avian diversity, it shows the ambit, a bit in control. But the rising industrial cover and anthropogenic pressure could lead to drastic effects on these species. Upon calculating the Relative Density of Grassland birds, the range was from (0 – 5.431) and Wetland Relative Density range was (0 – 7.700). Highest Abundance was 40 in grassland birds and 70 for wetland birds. The Species Diversity index was calculated as 3.963 for Grassland and 3.874 for Wetland birds.(Table 3). According to Shannon and Weiner (1963), if the value of Diversity is ranging between 0 indicates Low community complexity and 4 and above indicating High community complexity. All these parameters exhibit a fair presence of faunal diversity in MIDC area Amravati, but at the same time it showcases an Alarming-signal for future conservation measures.

With such rich faunal diversity of Birds, the rising Industrialization has started to exhibit its consequences. Every year the number of visiting birds is on a fall, loss of Habitat could be one of the major causes of this loss. Loss of Roosting grounds, open prairies, leading to insufficient food and water supply to birds are also contributing majorly. Factors like construction of road-ways, involvement of domestic animals for grazing, disturbance by stray dogs, heavy transportation activities through grassland patches, Clamorous noises from the nearby factories also leads the neighboring species to choose another area, water shortage due to uncontrolled usage for commercial and residential are also associated to loss of bird diversity from grasslands. Regrettably, the inimitable biodiversity of the Grasslands remains poorly documented in our region and hence, this study could provide a base-line data and could be helpful in future studies.


In all 395 species of birds recorded from Amravati District, out of which 221 species were observed only in MIDC area of Nandgaonpeth Amravati. This is almost 50% of the entire Amravati district bird’s species observed till now. This study also presented the Species Diversity Shannon-Wiener index, Species Abundance, Relative Density, Evenness and Richness of the avian species in MIDC area. These entire parameters exhibit high avian faunal existence in MIDC area of Amravati. This shows that the MIDC grasslands and wetlands provide a very rich fauna to the avian diversity, and would be a potential habitat for many others, like Short-eared Owl and Lesser Florican. However, MIDC of Nandgaonpeth Amravati was established in 2012 and since then developmental works started to bloom. This region has since been growing industrially at the cost of loss of Habitat. Once this region could have hosted a varied variety of Avian Fauna, but Industrialization has affected on their existence as well on their numbers. Hence, in this alarming situation this study showed a preliminary documentation of avian fauna in MIDC area, even though this is just a Base-line data but it would be of great use for future avian studies. Also, this study would be useful for establishing the environmental impacts of industrialization of MIDC area on bird diversity.  There is critical demand for continuous study in this field.


The Authors sincerely acknowledge to M.I.D.C Amravati authorities for providing all the needful information regarding the study area. We are very much thankful to the Mr. Shubham Wagh who designed and made available the MIDC area Map.We are also grateful to the Mr. Devrat Kulkarni for their field assistance during the survey.


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