1Research Scholar, Department of Education, CT, University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
2Associate Professor, School of Humanities and Physical Education, CT, University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
Corresponding author email: email@example.com
Article Publishing History
Education is a powerful instrument and catalyst of human development and empowerment for achievement of a better and high quality of life. The role of teacher is very important in imparting the knowledge and implementing the plans and programmes of the nation. But in present era of growing complexities the teacher is one of the most exposed person to stress and strain. It is an established fact that performance of a teacher mainly depend upon his/her psychological state of mind. The stress results into teacher’s physical, mental illness. Particularly, in case of women teachers, while performing dual role that is balancing work and family women they face various psychological and social problems. So, women teachers should be mentally strong enough to deal with all the challenges related to professional and personal life. The present study was conducted with an objective to find out the relationship between occupational stress, teacher self-efficacy and spiritual intelligence of women teachers. The sample of the study was 500 women teachers randomly selected from the five districts from the state of Punjab. The findings of the study reveal that- A significant and negative relationship was found between occupational stress, teacher self-efficacy and spiritual intelligence of women teachers. It is quite apparent from the regression model summary that teacher self-efficacy and spiritual intelligence of women teachers both independently as well as conjointly predicts occupational stress. Hence, it is obvious from the results that the teacher self-efficacy and spiritual intelligence are the most significant and influential contributor in predicting occupational stress of women teachers.
Occupational Stress, Teacher Self-Efficacy, Spiritual Intelligence
Rani A, Sharma S. Occupational Stress in Relation to Teacher Self - Efficacy and Spiritual Intelligence of Women Teachers. Biosc.Biotech.Res.Comm. 2020;13(4).
Rani A, Sharma S. Occupational Stress in Relation to Teacher Self – Efficacy and Spiritual Intelligence of Women Teachers. Biosc.Biotech.Res.Comm. 2020;13(4). Available from: <a href=”https://bit.ly/39XHPa1″>https://bit.ly/39XHPa1</a>
The whole advancement of our civilizations is in fact, based on the advancement of our education. The aims, processes and valuation of education are primarily associated with teaching. Sharma (2018) points out that national development and a society prosperous with knowledge all begins from its teachers. Teaching is one of the most significant profession of world. For the qualitative improvement of education, there is a need of effective teachers as the edifice of education depends on effective teaching. The most important factor of education is teacher, his personal qualities, his educational qualifications, his professional training and the place that he occupies in school as well as in the community. Hence it is important for the teacher’s life to be satisfied. But in present era of growing complexities the teacher is one of the most exposed person to stress and strain. It has been found that teaching is one of the jobs which is full of stress (Borg & Riding, 1991; Brouwers & Tomic, 1999; Sharma & Marwaha, 2020).
It is an established fact that performance of a teacher mainly depend upon his/her psychological state of mind. Surekha (2016) Studied work life balance of 90 married women working in software Industries in Bangluru (India) and found that employment of women affects health both physiologically and psychologically. But while performing dual role that is balancing work and family women teacher face various psychological and social problems. Most women do not have responsibility only in one domain anymore; they have to balance the competing demands of both work and family domain (Bicaksiz 2009). Working women’s problems are aggravated by their multiple role expectations which we find in Indian society. Today, women have to perform multiple roles as of wife, mother, homemaker, worker and a citizen. A working women taking up a job outside home also has to look after domestic work along with her official work. They dual responsibility has over burdened working women there by leading to multidimensional problems (Pandya and Thakkar, 2009).
Too much stress on mind and body can make working women feel miserable worried, sad and ill. Particularly, teacher stress has increasingly been recognized as a widespread problem in different educational settings. (Boyle, Brog, Falzon and Baglioni 1995; Dick and Wagner, 2001; Kyriacou, 2001) compared to the general population, teacher are at risk for higher levels of psychological distress and lower level of job satisfaction (Travers and copper, 1996; Schonfield, 1990). Brog (1990) also reported that up to one third of teachers perceive their occupation as highly stressful. Many job conditions caused stress among working women. These job conditions include little control over work; role ambiguity and conflict; poor relationships with co-workers and supervisors; heavy workload demands; job insecurity and work that are narrow, repetitive and monotonous. Besides this, delayed salaries, under paid, extra duties like election duties, pulse polio, social survey etc. produce stressful situations for women teachers. This stress results into teacher’s physical, mental illness (Sharma & Kaur, 2017; Sharma & Marwaha, 2020).
Sharma and Kaur (2017) conducted a study on a sample of 500 married women teachers teaching in schools and colleges in the state of Punjab, India. Data was collected with the help of Psycho-Social Problems of Educated Working Women Scale by Hundal (2002). The major findings of the study reveal that school and college women teachers do not differ significantly on psycho-social problems. Women teachers with age (<35 years and >35 years) do not differ significantly on psycho-social problems. School and college women teachers do not differ significantly on psycho-social problems due to interactional influence of category of teachers (school & college ) and age (<35 years & >35 years). These psychological and social problems affect the physical and psychological well being of teachers it influences teaching effectiveness and performance of a teacher. So, in order to teach effectively, teacher must not only feel psychologically and emotionally comfortable, but they must also have some sense of belief that they can make a difference to the lives of children they are teaching. For nurturing self-efficacy in students’ qualitative education needs effective teachers. Effective teachers are those who are committed, enthusiastic, intellectual and emotionally stable and with a high level self-efficacy. Self-efficacy has its root in social cognitive theory of Bandura, particularly in the context of cognitive behaviour modification (Sharma & Kaur, 2017; Sharma, 2020).
Tecaher self-Efficacy is an important application of Bandura’s (1977) social cognitive theory to educational setting (Sharma, 2018). Teachers having efficacious outlook fosters their intrinsic interests and deep engrossment in teaching activities such teachers holding high confidence in their capabilities approach difficult task as challenges to be mastered rather than to be avoided as threats. They set to themselves challenging goals and maintain strong commitment to the fact the higher sense of self-efficacy in human beings includes great effort Persistence and resilience. So, modern system needs teachers having strong self-efficacy and health mental health. A teacher with high efficacy exhibits less anger , less stress, use of fewer control tactics, use of cooperative learning and more enthusiastic towards teaching (Sharma & Kaur, 2015; Sharma,2020). Teacher with high self-efficacy teach well due to their self- confidence and quality of motivating students (Khurshid, Quasism and Ashraf (2012).
Teachers with high self-efficacy are more motivated than the teachers with low self-efficacy. This motivation enhances their work. Such teachers provide an opportunity for student having low self-efficacy to learn a lesson from them. Akram and Khuwaja (2014) compared 100 working and 98 non working women of Pakistan and found that non -working women have higher level of depression and compared to working women. But married women working as manager, lawyers have more stress as compared to teachers, lecturers and doctors. A study was carried out with an objective to find out the contribution of emotional intelligence, occupational stress and self efficacy to job satisfaction. Study was conducted on a sample of 398 secondary school teachers of Ondo state (Nigeria). Emotional intelligence questionnaire by Schutte et. al (1998); General Self -Efficacy scale’ by Sherer et., al., (1982) and ‘Job Satisfaction Scale’ by steers (1991) and ‘Occupational Stress Scale’ by Hassan and Hassan (1998) were used as data collection instruments. It was found that emotional intelligence is more important than self -efficacy jointly predict job satisfaction but the contribution is emotional intelligence is more important than self -efficacy and occupational stress do not predict job satisfaction among teachers (Akomolafe and Ogunmakin, 2014).
Another study conducted by Mohammadi and Mohammadipour (2015) the results indicated a significant relationship was found between self -efficacy, job performance and mental health. ‘Job Performance Questionnaire’ by Paterson (1991) ‘NEO- Personality Inventory – ‘Revised’ by Kasta and Mc Cary (1992); General Health Questionnaire’ by Goldenberg (1979) and ‘Sherer Self-Efficacy Scale’ by Sherer and Moddux (1982) were employed as tools for data collection 200 Iranian teachers were taken as a sample of the study. Whereas, Singh and Singh (2015) compared job satisfaction and self- efficacy of 82 regular and 118 contractual teachers of district Patna (India). Results reveal that teachers appointed on contract basis have poor job satisfaction and low self -efficacy than regular teachers. ‘Job Satisfaction Scale’ by Singh and Sharma (1990) and ‘Self- Efficacy Scale by Singh and Narain (2014) were used for data collection. Qadini et al. (2015) explored the effect of teaching experience on occupational stress on a sample of 819 teacher of Mysore Karnatka (India) and found that teachers with an age group of 15-20 years of teaching experience have maximum stress as compared to >20 years of teaching experience. However teachers with <5 years, 6-10 years and 11-15 years of experience have less stress. ‘The Occupational Stress Index’ by Srivastava and Singh (1984) was used as data collection tool.
Rastegar and Moradi (2016) examined the relationship between Iranian English language teachers’ job satisfaction, self – efficacy and their spiritual well being. ‘Job Muhangi (2017) conducted study on 626 teachers of district, Mbarora, Uganda and found that male and mature teachers have strong sense of self- efficacy than female and young teachers. It was further found that self -efficacy and job satisfaction are correlates to turnover intentions. Sharma and Kaur (2017) found that school and college women teachers do not differ significantly on teacher self-efficacy. Women teachers generally have average level of teacher self-efficacy. Sharma (2018) found no significant difference in teacher self-efficacy of school and college women teachers with respect to locale. Sharma (2018) conducted a study on 250 married college women teachers and found a significant and negative relationship between teacher self-efficacy and psycho-social problems of college women teachers. It has been found that school women teachers with <35 years of age have significantly higher level of self-efficacy than college women teachers with <35 years of age. College women teachers with >35 years of age have significantly higher level of teacher self-efficacy than school women teachers with >35 years of age (Sharma, 2018).
Spiritual intelligence is concerned with the inner life of mind and spirit and it is related to being in the world. It is the ability of an individual to think about the world, one’s self and spend one’s life according to that (Ronel and Gan 2008). Spiritually intelligent people have the ability to experience heightened states of consciousness and can utilize spiritual resources to solve problems (Emmons, 2000). It is considered as a capacity for a deep understanding of existential questions and insights into multiple levels of consciousness. It has become an important part of our lives as well as workplace. Kaur, (2013) suggested that spirituality is considered as one of the key factors for the success of the educational organisations and ultimately for the professional life of the teachers. Kalantarkousheh et., al. (2014) also found that higher spiritual intelligence is associated with higher organizational commitment. A significant and positive relationship was found between spiritual intelligence and job performance (Utomo et al. 2014). When spiritual intelligence is high, a person appears to be intellectual and have proper behaviour (Zohar and Marshall, 2000).
Spiritual Intelligence is defined as the as ability to apply and embody spiritual aspects and qualities to promote daily functioning and wellbeing. Amram (2007) gave 7 major themes of Spiritual Intelligence like as Consciousness: (developed refined awareness and self-knowledge) Grace (Living in alignment with the sacred manifesting love for and trust in life) Meaning (Experiencing significance in daily activities through a sense of purpose and a call for service including in the face of pain and suffering)Transcendence: (Going beyond the separate egoist self into an interconnected wholeness) Truth (Living in open acceptance, curiosity, and love for all creation) Peaceful surrender to Self (True, God, Absolute, true nature) and Inner-Directedness(inner-freedom aligned in responsible wise action) (Wigglesworth, 2006).
Teacher as a human being and spiritual being possesses spiritual intelligence that helps him/her to deal effectively. Sreeja (2005) conducted a study on “Spirituality, emotional, maturity, and quality of life among university students” and found that there is significant difference between boys and girls in spirituality but no significant difference between boys and girls in emotional maturity and quality of life. It was further found that spirituality and emotional maturity are independent of religion, but significant correlation was found between spirituality and emotional maturity. Spiritual intelligence provides a sense of personal wholeness, goal and direction (Dincer, 2009).
Siswoyo et al. (2018) found that emotional intelligence and spiritual intelligence has positive and significant effect on organizational commitment. Another study conducted by Shahokhi et al. (2018) whose results shown that spiritual intelligence and education level can be considered as predictive variables for perceived stress (P<0.001). A significant relationship was between spiritual intelligence and perceived stress and the predictive role of spiritual intelligence was considered as spiritual intelligence is one of the effective strategies in reducing stress that can be promoted by nurses. Human capital is one of the important determinants of nation’s growth and teachers are the key persons responsible for shaping the destiny of the nation. Teacher is the heart and core of an educational process. Teachers have a pivotal role in social reconstructions and in the transmission of knowledge and experience of one generation to another. Thus, it is important that the teachers get a congenial environment at the work place as it is the teachers upon who rests the task of developing pupils. Effective teachers pave the way for an enlightened and productive society.
Self- efficiency refers to a belief in one’s own capacity to organize and execute the course of action required to manage difficult and problematic situation. When an individual faces stressful situations, self – efficacy helps the individual to interpret such situations as challenges rather than threat. Thus teachers with high self-efficacy will be more successful in coping with stressful situations. There is scarcity of studies related to occupation stress in relation to teacher self-efficacy in the realm of women teacher especially in Punjab.
Apart from teacher’s self-efficacy, spiritual intelligence of a teacher is another important factor in teacher’s ability to cope with stress. The qualities that are required in most of the context of teachers are that which makes them contended in challenging situations.ie. Spiritual intelligence. Researches by Litwinczuk and Groh (2007), Brillhart (2005), George (2006), Emmons (2000), Faribers, Fatemah and Hamidreza (2010), Zhaleh and Ghonosooly (2017), Abbas, Bordbar, Moghadam ans Ali (2018) showed importance of spiritual intelligence in relation to life purpose, well being, personal security, happiness and ability to handle, adverse situations. The research gap identified in the study of related literature is that there are no studies that investigated into the relationship between occupational stress, teacher self-efficacy and spiritual intelligence of women teachers. Hence, the present study has been planned to study the relationship of occupational stress, teacher self-efficacy and spiritual intelligence especially in case of women teachers.
It will also essential and beneficial for planners and educational authorities to consider the relationship between occupational stress, teacher self-efficacy and spiritual intelligence of school and college women teachers and should try to provide suitable environment in educational institutions so that the academic achievement of the students may be enhanced. Therefore, investigator made an attempt to study occupational stress in relation to teacher self-efficacy and spiritual intelligence of women teachers.
Statement of the Problem
Occupational Stress In Relation To Teacher Self-Efficacy And Spiritual Intelligence Of Women Teachers:Operational definitions of the terms used :Occupational stress- It is often stems from undue pressure and unexpected responsibilities that do not match with person’s knowledge, skills or expectations that employee face during job (Jamal & Raheen, 2012).
Teacher self-efficacy– It refers to the belief in the efficiency of one’s teaching, teaching methods and judgment of his capabilities to bring about desired changes in student learning (Sharma, 2017).Spiritual intelligence-Spiritual intelligence is the ability to behave with wisdom and intelligently, therefore maintaining internal and external peace, despite of the condition (King, 2008).
Objectives of the study: To find out significant relationship between occupational stress and teacher self-efficacy of women teachers . To find out significant relationship between occupational stress and spiritual intelligence of women teachers. To find out conjoint effect of teacher self-efficacy and spiritual intelligence on occupational stress of women teachers
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Research design, Participants of the study and Sampling technique- Research design may be defined as a plan or blue print describing the conditions and procedures for collecting and analyzing data (McMillan & Schumacher, 2010). The present study is a descriptive survey method. A sample of 500 women teachers teaching in government and self-financed schools and colleges from five districts of Punjab were selected randomly. Multistage randomization sampling technique was employed. Districts, the colleges, the schools, the teachers were selected by using random sampling technique.
Hypotheses of the study: There exists a significant relationship between occupational stress and teacher self – efficacy of women teachers. There exists a significant relationship between Occupational stress and spiritual intelligence of women teachers. The conjoint effect of teacher self-efficacy and spiritual intelligence on occupational stress of women teachers is higher than their individual effects.
Tools used :Teacher’s Occupational Stress Scale by Jamal and Raheen (2012).Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale by Sharma (2017).Spiritual Intelligence Self Report Inventory (SISRI) by David B. King (2008)
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 1. Showing the coefficient of correlation between occupational stress and teacher self-efficacy of women teachers
|Occupational stress and teacher self – efficacy||women teachers||500||-0.35||Sig. at .01 level|
It can be seen from Table No. 1 that the coefficient of correlation between occupational stress and teacher self-efficacy of women teachers came as -0.35 which is significant at .01 level of confidence, meaning thereby that, a significant and negative relationship exists between occupational stress and teacher self-efficacy of women teachers. This implies that the women teachers who have higher level of teacher self-efficacy experience less occupational stress and the women teachers who have lower level of teacher self-efficacy experience more occupational stress. Thus, the above result leads to the acceptance of Hypothesis 1, “There exists a significant relationship between occupational stress and teacher self-efficacy of women teachers”.
This implies that higher the level of teacher self-efficacy of women teachers; lesser will be the occupational stress. It may be due to the fact that strong sense of self-efficacy enhances the level of accomplishment and personal well being of person in a countless ways. They approach difficult tasks as challenges rather than as threats (Sharma, 2018). This result of the study also corresponds with findings reported by Kumar (2013); Gupta and Kumar (2014); Zaki (2016); Sharma (2018) and Sharma (2020) as they found significant and negative relationship between teacher self-efficacy and occupational stress. The investigators could not find any study showing positive relationship between teacher self-efficacy and occupational stress. As, such a result is neither expected nor desired.
Table 2. Showing the coefficient of correlation between occupational stress and spiritual intelligence of women teachers
|Occupational stress and spiritual intelligence||women teachers||500||-0.39||Sig. at .01 level|
To test what was stated in objective 2, it was hypothesized as, “There exists a significant relationship between occupational stress and spiritual intelligence of women teachers”.
To achieve above stated hypothesis, coefficient of correlation was calculated with product moment method between the scores of women teachers on the variables of occupational stress and spiritual intelligence and it came as -0.39 which is significant at .01 level of confidence which leads to the conclusion that a significant and negative relationship exists between occupational stress and spiritual intelligence of women teachers. This implies that the women who are spiritually more intelligent experience less occupational stress and the women teachers who are spiritually less intelligent experience more occupational stress. As, a significant and negative relationship was found between the scores of women teachers on the variables of occupational stress and spiritual intelligence, therefore Hypothesis 2 i.e., “There exists a significant relationship between Occupational stress and spiritual intelligence among women teachers” stands accepted. The findings of Zohar and Marshall (2001); Nelms (2005); Kumar and Pragadeeswaran (2011); Marzabadi, Hoshmandja and Poorkhalil (2013) ;Utomo et al. (2014); Zhaleh and Ghonsooly (2017); Abbas, Bordbar, Moghadam and Ali (2018);Shahokhi et al. (2018); Yahyavi, Narab and Yahyavi (2018) and Mathew, Shetty and Nair (2020) are in line with present findings as they researched that higher the level of spiritual intelligence lowers the stress level of a person.
Regression for predictive efficiency: ‘The conjoint effect of teacher self-efficacy and spiritual intelligence on occupational stress of women teachers is higher than their individual effects’
|Variable||R||R2||% Variance||F||Inference||Step-up Regression Equation|
|YX1||0.353||0.125||12.5||70.98||Sig at 0.01 level||Y=144.97-0.23X1|
|YX2||0.386||0.149||14.9||87.43||Sig at 0.01 level||Y=181.15-0.48X2|
|YX1X2||0.460||0.212||21.2||66.84||Sig at 0.01 level||Y=197.83-0.17X1-0.39X2|
Y – Occupational stress, X1 – teacher self-efficacy, X2 – spiritual intelligence
The effect of teacher self-efficacy on occupational stress of women teachers was found to be significant at .01 level (F(1, 498)= 70.98). The computed value of R2 of teacher self-efficacy and occupational stress of women teachers (YX1) is 0.125 which indicates that the contribution of teacher self-efficacy on occupational stress is 12.5%. The occupational stress of women teachers can be predicted with the equation. Occupational Stress = 144.97 -0.23 x teacher self-efficacyi.e. for every unit of increase in teacher self-efficacy, occupational stress of women teachers decrease .23
The effect of spiritual intelligence on occupational stress of women teachers was found to be significant at .01 level (F(1, 498)= 87.43). The computed value of R2 of spiritual intelligence and occupational stress of women teachers (YX2) is 0.149 which indicates that the contribution of spiritual intelligence on occupational stress of women teachers is 14.9%. The occupational stress can be predicted with the equation: Occupational stress = 181.15-0.48 x spiritual intelligence i.e. for every unit of increase in spiritual intelligence, occupational stress of women teachers decrease .48. The conjoint effect of both teacher self-efficacy and spiritual intelligence on occupational stress of women teachers was found to be significant at 0.01 level of significance (F(2,497)=66.84). The computed value of R2 of occupational stress with teacher self-efficacy and spiritual intelligence (YX1X2) is 0.212 which indicates the contribution of teacher self-efficacy and spiritual intelligence on occupational stress of women teachers is 21.2%.
As %age variance (=21.2) of variables of teacher self-efficacy and spiritual intelligence conjointly on occupational stress of women teachers shows increase in its value from teacher self-efficacy (%age variance =12.5) and spiritual intelligence (%age variance =14.9), it indicates that the conjoint effect of teacher self-efficacy and spiritual intelligence on occupational stress of women teachers is higher than that of teacher self-efficacy and spiritual intelligence separately. The occupational stress of women teachers can be predicted with the equation : Occupational stress = 197.83-0.17 x teacher self-efficacy -0.39 x spiritual intelligence
Hence, hypothesis 3 i.e., “The conjoint effect of teacher self-efficacy and spiritual intelligence on occupational stress of women teachers is higher than their individual effects” stands accepted.The investigator did not come across any study in favor of above said results. But the investigator could find studies such as, Anusiem, Okoiye and Emmanuel (2015) who found occupational stress has more predictive influence in teacher efficacy of secondary school teachers as compared to teaching anxiety. Similar results were reported by Lu, Siu & Cooper, (2005); Cascio, Magnano, Elastico, Costantino, Zapparrata & Battiato, (2014) and Aggarwal, (2015) who found self-efficacy is a potent predictor of stress. Sharma (2020) also found that conjoint effect of teaching experience and psycho-social problems is higher as compared to their separate prediction in predicting the teacher self-efficacy of school women teachers.
CONCLUSIONS OF THE STUDY
A significant and negative relationship was found between occupational stress, teacher self-efficacy and spiritual intelligence of women teachers. It is quite apparent from the regression model summary that teacher self-efficacy and spiritual intelligence of women teachers both independently as well as conjointly predicts occupational stress. Hence, it is obvious from the results that the teacher self-efficacy and spiritual intelligence are the most significant and influential contributor in predicting occupational stress of women teachers.
Educational Implications of the study: Based on the findings of the study following educational implications has been drawn:
Seminars and workshops should be organised to improve the level of self-efficacy and spiritual intelligence of women teachers. Workshops on yoga and meditation for women teachers should be organized to minimise the level of their occupational stress and increase the level of spiritual intelligence and teacher self-efficacy (Sharma, 2018).
The author(s) thank the Principals and teachers of various schools who extended their full cooperation by allowing them in getting relevant information from their respective schools.
Conflict of Interest Statement: It is certify that authors of the present paper have no affiliations with any organization or entity with any financial interest or non-financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.
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