Bioscience Biotechnology Research Communications

An Open Access International Journal

P-ISSN: 0974-6455 E-ISSN: 2321-4007

Bioscience Biotechnology Research Communications

An Open Access International Journal

Abdulla Mohamed Abdulla Alyateem1 and Abdelrahman Abeid Alqarni*2

1Ministry of Education Saudi Arabia

2Information Science Department King Abdulaziz University Jeddah Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Corresponding author Email: alqarni333@yahoo.com

Article Publishing History

Received: 12/11/2018

Accepted After Revision: 29/12/2018

ABSTRACT:

The study aims to provide a proposed general framework to apply knowledge management to student guidance in general education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia at the long term. Based on studying the theoretical literature of the study subject, examining submitted knowledge management models in general and in the education field in particular, concluding the findings of this study that aims to discover the influence of Knowledge management applications on supporting student guidance and finally clarifying the relationship between Knowledge management applications and student guidance. The researchers developed their proposed model by combining (Lee & Kim) model with (Nonaka, I. & Takeuchi) model. The researchers also developed their model based on viewing different models and findings concluded in literature reviews and the studies conducted by them in addition to the recommendations of (focus group) which was conducted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The researchers conducted their study based on the content analysis method and the style of (focus group). The (focus group) has adopted the proposed framework provided by the researchers.

KEYWORDS:

General Education- Student Guidance- Knowledge Management- (Nonaka, I. & Takeuchi) Model- (Lee & Kim) Model- Knowledge Management Models

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Alyateem A. M. A, Alqarni A. A. General Framework to Apply Knowledge Management to Student Guidance in General Education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Biosc.Biotech.Res.Comm. VOL 12 NO1 (Spl Issue February) 2019.


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Alyateem A. M. A, Alqarni A. A. General Framework to Apply Knowledge Management to Student Guidance in General Education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Biosc.Biotech.Res.Comm. VOL 12 NO1 (Spl Issue February) 2019. Available from: https://bit.ly/2XM2PL7


Introduction

The educational field, as many different professional fields, may suffer from waste and continuous loss of knowledge due to many reasons whether professional ones such as; retirement or resignation, or natural ones such as; diseases or death. Such reasons may negatively affect the educational and professional work with the continuous loss of knowledge and educational expertise without benefiting from it and transmitting the same to the following generations of the profession of education.

By considering the student guidance profession, as one of the most important educational professions, and its knowledge and professional expertise, we realize that it is subject to loss of knowledge and expertise resulting from the above stated reasons like many other educational fields. This case requires hard working to stop these losses and find out means to benefit from the available knowledge and invest the experience of the continuous professional development in the field of student guidance.

Therefore, knowledge management and its processes and applications can be regarded as an important way and effective means to perfectly invest in knowledge, experiments and guiding experiences. Then, knowledge management may be transferred, published, organized and stored in order to make the best use of it.

In this study, the researcher developed a general framework to apply knowledge management to student guidance in the general education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study will discuss the study problem, literature reviews, study methodology, content analysis, applying the style of focus groups and finally how to develop the general framework as one of the outputs of the study.

Literature Reviews

Study No. [1] sought to recognize the percentage of the second secondary school students in secondary schools in the city of Ta’if who have a high violent attitude, and the effect of an existing program to prepare information for social knowledge on reducing violence among them. The study was conducted on a sample consisting of 363 students in second secondary school in the city of Ta’if in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This study was based on experimental and descriptive methods. The study concluded that the percentage of the students who have violent attitude was 42.2% and the guiding program has effectively reduced this violent attitude among students largely. This study recommended to recognize the basic psychological, social and cognitive needs of adults, avoid using disappointing words and behaviors and determine the students’ rights and duties. It also suggested to conduct researches about a means that depend on preparing information for social knowledge in dealing with behavioral problems.

This study agrees with the current study in clarifying the crucial and important role of preparing information and knowledge in reducing valance among the student. This can be regarded as a try to use information and knowledge in the field of student guidance and an incentive to apply knowledge management to student guidance.

Study No. [2] aimed to use Data mining techniques in dealing with the educational problems and deviations among adults. Adolescence is the time during which people develop and form their crucial values, personality traits, and beliefs. Hence, as deviant behaviors occur during adolescence, it is important to guide adolescents away from such behaviors and back to normal behaviors. Moreover, although there are various kinds of deviant behavior, most of them would either directly or indirectly affect youths’ academic learning progresses. Therefore, many researchers have endeavored to explore the issues of juvenile delinquency. In this study, we focus on providing methods that could assist counseling officers in discovering symptoms and pre-symptoms of youth delinquency. The study proposes a framework for mining associations from “memo-type” records and guiding notes. In addition, we apply this approach to retrieve associations among deviant behaviors from the counseling records stored in databases. The contributions to adolescent counseling are as follows: (1) A keyword tree of deviant behaviors is constructed and verified; (2) Preparing behavioral groups extracted from records and guiding notes according to general sequence and classification in terms of the types of deviant behaviors. Finally, (3) an information system is recommended to help junior counselors performing counseling and guiding works. Consequently, without experienced consultants, the proposed framework could discover valuable knowledge from consulting records effectively and many efforts are therefore saved. This study concluded a general framework to benefit from the previous deviant behaviors data in predicting and treating processes to help young people in order to live a normal life, provide necessary guidance, explain all procedures in this regard, and verify the sufficiency of this proposed method. The contributions to adolescent counseling are in the following two sides:

(1) A keyword tree of deviant behaviors is constructed to classify the data records. This keyword tree was verified to be true to the percentage of 94.5%. It was also flexibly classified.

(2) The processes of predicting deviant behaviors by mining in guiding data have contributed in discovering deviant behaviors through the proposed framework with the percentage of 94%. In addition, about 96.7% of the classified groups have furnished valuable information that contributed in reducing deviant behavior without refereeing to experienced consultants. All that helped students to refrain from committing deviant behaviors and played an important role in preventing serious crimes.

This study agrees with the current study in supporting the idea of accumulated data mining and searching in order to predict the deviant behaviors of students. This way can be regarded as a way to deal with knowledge management because it handles accumulated data, knowledge and experiences. Data mining proved to be effective indicating the benefits of knowledge management in this field.

Study No. [3] aimed to discover The Effect of a Counseling Supervision Program -Based on the Skill Development Model- on Raising the Professional Self- Efficacy Level among Counselor Trainees in Jordan. The study sample consisted of (60) psychological counseling fourth and third year male and female students at Yarmouk University who are registered in the course of psychological counseling skills and techniques and training fields. Those students were randomly divided into two groups; the experimental group, which was trained by the counseling supervision program-based on the skill development model, and the control group, which was dealt with according to the normal teaching methods. The study showed that the professional self- efficacy level among the experimental group individual was less than the level of the individuals of the control group. The study also showed that there are static significant differences in the behavioral field attributed to the interaction between the group and gender and academic year and gender and finally interaction between the group, gender and academic years. The study also showed that there are static significant differences in the cognitive field attributed to the interaction between the group, gender and academic year. It also showed that there are static significant differences in performance averages on the professional self- efficacy level in general attributed to the group and interaction between the group and gender and academic year and gender and finally interaction between the group, gender and academic years. The study recommendations:

  • Developing training programs according to different supervisory models to raise the professional self- efficacy level among counselor trainees and employed educational counselors and apply it to identify its effect on raising the professional self- efficacy level;
  • Studying the characteristics of counselor trainees in order to be considered when developing programs for them;
  • Studying the difficulties facing counseling supervisors in solving the problems, which the counselor trainees suffer from in order to mitigate its impact;
  • Spreading the idea of executing and applying the training program on psychological counseling students to improve the level in practicing counseling work; And
  • Generalizing the counseling program on counseling supervisors in different directorates of education in order to acquire the practical and theoretical supervisory experience.

This study agrees with the current study in depending on cognitive program that improves the performance in the field of counseling and highlighting the role of this cognitive program in raising the professional self- efficacy level to improve its quality and the quality of counseling service in general.

Study No. [4] aimed to realize the superiorities and difficulties of Application Knowledge Management for Elementary School Teachers and offer the solutions. The analysis of this study considers that the superiorities for elementary school teachers in application knowledge management establish commonly the concept of knowledge management and school teachers can form professional groups to share knowledge. Besides, in the difficulties of application knowledge management, the main problems are insufficient study hours and scanty content planning; schools don’t have enough budget and apparatus to enrich information equipment; teachers are insufficient for information accomplishments and capacity; the school organization ossifies and the teachers settle in present situation; teachers have deficient sense of trust in application knowledge management and so on. According to the analyses above, researchers present four strategies as following to enable the application knowledge management results:

  1. Establish a reasonable further education system to enhance the teachers’ willing to take advanced courses, and promote teachers to obtain knowledge.
  2. Distribute educational expenditure properly to enrich schools information network equipments, and promote the way of teachers sharing knowledge.
  3. Encourage teachers to strive the abilities and accomplishments of information science and technology to enable teachers to develop the function of knowledge application fully.
  4. Mold innovative organization culture to avoid rigid organization and promote teachers to innovate knowledge and abilities in application knowledge management.

This study agrees with the current study in clarifying the superiorities and difficulties of Application Knowledge Management and offers the solutions. This makes it easy for the current study in outlining the superiorities that will be adopted and the difficulties that must be avoided or at least dealt with and solved.

Study No. [5] aimed to realize the reality of Knowledge management applications in supporting the Student guidance in the department of education for the region of BISHA from schools principals and educational guides’ point of view. The survey method was used through the questionnaire, which was formed from Likert scale for the two samples of the study that has relation with the applications of knowledge management in BISHA education. The findings of this study identified the reality of the Applications of knowledge management in the field of the Student guidance in general education in the department of education for the region of BISHA, the instrument was subject to check and examination and proved to be truthful and effective. The study community was formed from schools principals and student guidance in education schools in BISHA, the study sample was formed from (200) members distribution, (100) schools principals and (100) student advisors. This study showed that the first of these applications was (Importance of knowledge management) with a percentage of 72.00% in student guidance in general education in BISHA. Then, (Knowledge acquisition) with a percentage of 71.00% in student guidance in general education in BISHA; then (Knowledge participation) with a percentage of 66.00% in student guidance in general education in BISHA; then (Realizing knowledge management concepts) with a percentage of 64.67% in student guidance in general education in BISHA; then (Knowledge Publish) with a percentage of 63.67%; then (Maintaining and organizing knowledge) with a percentage of 61.33% in student guidance in general education in BISH, then (Knowledge application) with a percentage of 61.00 % in student guidance in general education in BISHA. Finally, (Knowledge generation) came the least one with a percentage of 60.33% in student guidance in general education in BISHA. In general, we found that the responses of the study samples about the application of knowledge management were (2.98), i.e. the applications of knowledge management in general in student guidance for general education in BISHA with the percentage of 66.00%.

This study agrees with the current study in explaining the reality of Knowledge management applications in supporting Student guidance, which may contribute in developing the proposed general framework on application basis.

Study Problem

Student guidance is regarded as a fertile environment for knowledge and experiences and is one of the most important educational and pedagogical fields. Student guidance deals with different educational and pedagogical problems related to students. That was explicitly provided for in the organizational guide issued by the ministry of education and pedagogy (Currently the Ministry of Education). This organizational guide stated that the functions of the student guidance are to study the social, economical, healthy and behavioral cases and psychological and educational problems and to prepare treatment plans for such problems. Workers in student guidance must acquire experiences and knowledge- as seems logical- through executing the functions of student guidance or fieldwork in the field of education and pedagogy. Such experiences and knowledge will be subject to loss in case that there is no effective management. They also must be shared with these field-affiliated persons and other categories related to the educational work in order to be key factors to achieve the objectives of education and pedagogy. Therefore, this study aimed to provide a proposed framework to apply knowledge management to the field of student guidance in the general education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Study Methodology

This study is based on reviewing the intellectual production and using the content analysis method through studying the intellectual production, which is related to the study subject, through a theoretical framework, the literature reviews and knowledge management models. The study also uses the style of (Focus Group) to introduce the proposed general framework as an output of this study. This general framework depends on combining and developing many previous models as well as benefitting from the findings of this study and the literature reviews and enhancing their credibility. The style of (Focus Group) is search aims to recognize the agreed upon opinions by some carefully selected experts.

Applied Framework

Through applying the content analysis method, the researcher has found, through his study, two models, which can be combined and developed in a proposed general framework to apply knowledge management to student guidance in general education. These two models are: (Lee & Kim) model and (Nonaka, I. & Takeuchi) model. But, the researcher has changed the name of the second stage of (Lee & Kim) model from “Propagation Stage” to a new one “Building and spread stage” according to what the researcher considers proper for the subject and objectives of the proposed model. The following table No. (1) shows (Lee & Kim) model:

Sr. Knowledge Management Stages Stages Activities
1 Initiation Stage – Building Infrastructure

– Building Human Relations

– Reward Systems

– Organizational culture management

– Communication technology

– Building databases

– Obtaining proposed ideas and opinions

2 Propagation Stage – Justifying Ideas

– Making justification procedures and policies

– Using information technology in treating and analyzing ideas to be justified

– Controlling knowledge and arbitration tools

– Obtaining the justified knowledge and arbitrating it

3 Internal Integration Stage – Integrating and knowledge financing according to the market requirements

– Structuring knowledge and drawing its map

– Using search engines and its strategies

– Applying technology in performance measurement systems

– Obtaining funded and integrated knowledge

4 External Integration Stage – Knowledge management competency

– Mesh networks

– External sources

– Cooperation Management

– Online conference and video conference

– Emails

– Sharing Knowledge systems

– Unification subjects

– Obtaining basic and networking knowledge

In the second stage of this general framework, Nonaka Model [7] was combined with this model because it aims to transform, document, store, organize, share and exchange knowledge. Nonaka Model [7] also aims to apply publications and availability policies and obtaining knowledge continually. The researcher used (Figure No. (1) Nonaka, I. &Takeuchi model) in the first four procedures of this stage in the proposed model and added two other necessary procedures. These two other processors are documenting and sharing knowledge.

Figure 1. Nonaka, I. & Takeuchi model [7] Figure 1: Nonaka, I. & Takeuchi model [7]

 

Figure 2. Detailed plan for the strategic proposed model to apply knowledge management to student guidance Figure 2: Detailed plan for the strategic proposed model to apply knowledge management to student guidance


Study Findings and Outputs

The researcher built his proposed model by combining (Lee & Kim) model with (Nonaka, I. & Takeuchi) model. He benefited from different models, findings of this current study and literature reviews and the recommendations of (Focus Group) conducted on Wednesday corresponding to 10/11/2016. This focus group aimed to deal with the strategic general framework submitted by the researcher to apply knowledge management to student guidance in general education. The focus group approved the model furnished by the researcher and recommended to find a model to be applied to the student guidance according to the status quo through the findings of this study and the recommendations of the focus group. The focus group also recommended documenting guiding knowledge and experiences through building a directed model to record these knowledge and experiences in guiding knowledge container in order to be spread and used in the field of student guidance in the department of education for the region of BISHA. The focus group also recommended creating a database of educational field direction and guidance experts in order to facilitate the process of contacting them to get their consultations and developing procedures and documenting practices of student guidance in the department of education for the region of BISHA. Finally, the focus group recommended developing student guidance community of practice in the educational in the department of education for the region of BISHA.

Proposed General framework of applying knowledge management to student guidance in the general education in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia:

First: the objectives of the Strategic proposed model to apply knowledge management to student guidance:

This proposed model seeks to achieve the following:

  • Stopping the loss of guiding knowledge and experiences in the educational field in general education.
  • Applying the successful experiments in the field of student guidance in general education.
  • Spreading the cognitive Culture in the educational field.
  • Contributing in applying knowledge management in the educational field.
  • Contributing in solving educational and pedagogical problems in the educational field.
  • Establishing the culture of sharing and exchanging knowledge among individuals in the educational field in order to serve the educational and pedagogical goals.
  • Building and defining the best ways and instruments to spread guiding knowledge in the educational and pedagogical field.
  • Establishing internal and external integration in applying knowledge management to student guidance in general education.
  • Building consulting services in the field of guiding knowledge in order to serve the goals of student’s guidance in general education.
  • Making continuous incentive system to support sharing, exchanging, acquiring and applying knowledge.

Second: Stages of applying knowledge management to student guidance

First stage: initiation

This stage is the first preparatory stage of this model. This stage aims at planning, defining ingredients, spreading the knowledge and training culture, identifying training needs and required knowledge, its sources and the techniques used to acquire knowledge. This stage includes the following:

1- Knowledge Management planning through the following procedures:

  • Studying the current situation and the maturity level of Knowledge management applications in the field of student guidance regarding general education in Bisha.
  • Developing general, strategic and secondary plans that aim to get knowledge and make use of it.
  • Drawing the policies that organize the works of Knowledge management on students guiding field (participation policy- Organization policy- storage and copyrights policies- knowledge warehouses policy).
  • Building the objectives related to applying knowledge management to all applied stages.
  • Approving balance sheets that are related to applying knowledge management to student

2-Determining the ingredients of applying knowledge management as follows:

  • Determining the ingredientsand infrastructure of applying knowledge management to student guidance.
  • Analyzing the ingredientsand infrastructure of applying knowledge management to the educational field.
  • Making the plans that provide the ingredients of applying knowledge management to student guidance.
  • Determining the necessary human resources for achieving this application.
  • Determining the procedures, facilities and processes of the flexible organizational structure.

3- Spreading knowledge culture through the following procedures:

  • Determining the knowledge culture level in the educational field.
  • Determining and building the required cultural content to raise the knowledge awareness in the educational field.
  • Determining the required training programs in raising the knowledge awareness.
  • Spreading the knowledge culture and choosing the appropriate publishing techniques in the educational and pedagogical field and conferences, as well as cooperation with other organizations.
  • Encouraging individuals to education through testing and observing.
  • Managing unofficial meetings to reduce tensions of official relationships.

4-Training through the following procedures:

  • Analyzing the training needs in the field of applying the guiding knowledge management and its experiences to the educational and pedagogical field.
  • Building training programs to fulfill the needs of the guiding knowledge management field.
  • Attracting the specialized training efficiencies in the field of knowledge management in education.

5-Analyzing and determining knowledgethrough the following procedures:

  • Analyzing the guiding knowledge provided in the educational and pedagogical field.
  • Determining the required knowledge in the area of guiding knowledge in the educational and pedagogical field.
  • Choosing appropriate classifying systems for guiding knowledge provided in the educational and pedagogical field.
  • Determining the sources of guiding knowledge inside and outside the educational and pedagogical field.

6-Determining the techniques of acquiring knowledge:

The researcher determined a group of the techniques of acquiring knowledge as follows:

  • Determine the sources of guiding knowledge which provide the field with experiences and knowledge.
  • Analyzing the techniques that control the sources of experiences and knowledge and stopping its waste.
  • Building a documentation system right away for the educational field.
  • Determining the techniques which facilitate the process of acquiring knowledge and experience.
  • Training on the techniques of acquiring knowledge and experience in the educational and pedagogical field.

Second stage: Building and spread

The second stage of the model includes the following:

1- Building process: transforming the guiding knowledge from implicit to implicit through the following procedures:

  • Brainstorming by focusing and discussing ideas about a problem in a group that includes both experienced and other inexperienced persons.
  • Holding meetings to deal with a topic in order to take decisions concerning the work through learning from the experienced persons, introducing and discussing new initiative.
  • Holding Informal side meetings with the aim of exchanging and sharing knowledge.
  • Knowledge cafes and informal gathering of the categories of employees within the organization system directly face to face or indirectly through social media networks.
  • Social media: is a technological innovation, which based on web applications No.2 whether internal within the organizations scope (known as internal networks) or external through public means such as: Twitter, Facebook, Whatsapp groups, emails, or text messages whereby knowledge and experiences are transferred and exchanged.

2- Output process: transforming the guiding knowledge from implicit to document explicitly through one of the following:

  • Video records for meetings, seminars, training courses and lectures by using video.
  • Making knowledge maps through brainstorming to particular definitions related to a particular field, then drawing a conceptual map to such definitions and knowledge and connecting them to one another.
  • Recording documentary reports for knowledge outputs of meetings, seminars, Knowledge cafes in order to record their works and document the discussed knowledge.
  • Studying guiding cases that deal with behavioral symptoms or educational problems through analyzing and solving problems.
  • Noor programs through recording emergency guiding cases in it along with suitable treatment ways and immediate procedures that are taken, which constituted documentation for it.
  • Direction and Guidance unit through its mission that aims to solve difficult educational or behavioral problems, which are referred by schools and considered to document and solve these problems.

3- Combining process: Transforming Guiding Knowledge from explicit to explicit through the following:

  • Knowledge reservoirs, which are related to student guidance. These Knowledge reservoirs are used to collect guiding knowledge that can be exchanged with others internally or externally.
  • Conferences: Any conference must work properly and according to clear objectives based documented outputs, through the conference books that include discussed topics and its documented inputs whether by paper or television and then converting it to books or general reports, whether paper or televised.

4- The process of digestion (acquiring): transforming the guiding knowledge from implicit to explicit through the following:

  • Training on student guidance and development of staff of guidance professionally through using the guiding knowledge and presenting it as a training content for them.
  • Continuous direction for staff during the workflow in order to support the guidance processes and raise the level of performance in a documented explicit way through directed readings or circulars, guidance letters or TV documentary programs.

5-Knowledge Documentation Process: guiding knowledge documentation process is carried out through the following:

  • Practicing guidance cases and recording it in Noor program with treatment plans.
  • Studying the guiding cases, its causes and methods of treatment.
  • Transferred treatment cases in guidance units and its treatment plans.
  • Documenting educational forums related to student guidance.
  • Documenting educational conferences related to student guidance.
  • Documenting the directed visits by supervisors and school principals to student advisors.
  • Documenting knowledge cafes reports that gather the student guidance-affiliated persons.
  • Documenting exchangeable visits reports between student advisors.

6- Sharing and exchanging Knowledge: sharing and exchanging Knowledge is carried out through the following:

  • Supervisory field visits by school principals and educational supervisors.
  • Mutual visits between advisors.
  • Knowledge cafes that include student guides-affiliated persons.
  • Educational forums related to student guidance.
  • Conferences related to student guidance.
  • Social media (twitter-face book-wiki-YouTube…etc)
  • Training programs which depend on brainstorming.
  • Side meetings between student guidance-affiliated persons.

Third Stage: Internal Integration

Knowledge activities are being dealt with in this stage as daily activities. This stage focuses on integration of knowledge and the knowledge activities, which mean that the organization staff get used to these activities in a way that reflect on the organization level and its accumulated knowledge. This internal integration stage includes the following:

1-Structuring Guiding knowledge, which includes the following:

  • Drawing knowledge maps that refer to determining the sources of knowledge in order to make the knowledge storage available through determining the following:
  1. Counseling fields including (behavioral, educational, social and health fields)
  2. Human Resources including (Student- Teacher- Manager- Guide- Parent- Supervisor)
  3. Sources of Knowledge
  4. Services of Knowledge
  5. Techniques of Knowledge
  • Storing information and knowledge represented in knowledge reservoirs, databases, information centers and electronic environment of the organizational memory.
  • Retrieving knowledge and information through recovery systems via user interfaces for guide inquiry and the aim lies in Retrieving and accessing knowledge.

2-Building guiding knowledge services that include the following:

  • Services of current awareness of all updates in student guidance field and each area related to anyone works in student guidance as fitting to them.
  • Services of selective broadcast of Knowledge after classification the people, who work in the area of student guidance, knowing their requirements of knowledge and providing them with these requirements.
  • Counseling services that ensure the consultation for the people, who work in the area of student guidance and others.
  • Services of exchanging knowledge in a way that facilitates transferring and exchanging process by using relevant appropriate new techniques.
  • Research knowledge services, which is mainly related to scientific researches and innovative experiments related to the student guidance area.
  • Services of databases, which facilitates and organize obtaining knowledge easily from different databases especially those related to the student guidance area.

3-Enacting laws and standards of knowledge in student guidance. These laws and standards include the following:

  • Laws of sharing and exchanging knowledge
  • Laws of developing sources of knowledge
  • Laws of spreading knowledge
  • Standards of measuring the individuals’ performance in knowledge area
  • Standards of measuring the organization performance in applying knowledge management
  • Standards of measuring the quality of knowledge services

4-Training on the skills of guiding knowledge. 

These skills include the following:

  • Skills of acquiring knowledge
  • Skills of sharing and exchanging knowledge
  • Skills of spreading knowledge
  • Skills of dealing with knowledge databases
  • Skills of dealing with knowledge reservoirs
  • Skills of scientific research

5-Building the system of incentives which support managing the guiding knowledge through the following

  • Scientific research
  • Sharing and exchanging knowledge
  • Developing professional knowledge
  • Training during providing the services

6-Techniques of guiding knowledge management

  • Databases
  • Digital libraries
  • Knowledge reservoir
  • Social media
  • Noor program
  • Official educational websites
  • Emails
  • Systems of organizing and classifying knowledge

Fourth Stage: External Integration

This stage is the last stage of the proposed model for applying knowledge management to student guidance, which includes the following:

1-Spread the guiding knowledge: this operation includes the following procedures:

  • Spread through magazines and educational courses
  • Spread through conferences and specialized seminars
  • Spread through scientific researches published in scientific magazines
  • Spread through education forum specialized in students guidance
  • Spreading successful guiding experiments

2-External cooperation management; this external cooperative management is carried out through the following:

  • Concluding agreements about guiding knowledge with specialized institution and organizations
  • Joining to international organizations specialized in guidance and direction
  • Sharing knowledge with organizations and institutions through databases and knowledge reservoir
  • Mutual workshops between organizations in fields of guiding knowledge

3-Guiding knowledge reservoir: Guiding knowledge reservoir is built through the following:

  • Organizational polices for knowledge reservoir
  • Choosing a good system for managing the content (system D- space is preferred)
  • Choosing the suitable classification for the knowledge reservoir content
  • Choosing a normal and advanced search system inside the reservoir
  • Developing a system for developing the collections of the knowledge reservoir
  • Developing a system for intellectual property rights

4-Providing counseling services in guidance field: the counseling services are provided in the guidance field through the following:

  • Establishing a committee of experienced guiding counselors
  • Building an advanced communication and connection system that guarantee achieving high quality services
  • Using knowledge techniques in counseling field

5-External participations: includes the following:

  • Regional and international conferences in fields of student guidance
  • Seminars specialized in the field of student guidance
  • Training courses specialized in student guidance field
  • Study programs provided by universities in student guidance field

6-Integration with the objective of education: it is carried out through integrating with the following:

  • Education vision and objectives in order to support and achieve them
  • Integration with the objective, training plans and scholarships related to education
  • Student guidance objectives in order to support and achieve them
  • National strategic objective for transforming to knowledge society
  • The objectives and plans that aim to build knowledge economy

References

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