Department of Plant Industry, Perm State Agrarian-Technological University, Perm Russia
Corresponding author email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Article Publishing History
When choosing a variety for cultivation, it is necessary to take into account its genetic potential, biological features and the purpose of use. The role of ecological sustainability of varieties and hybrids is especially considerable with low availability of techno genic means.This current study mainly focuses on the role of varieties in the formation of oil-main raw materials from spring rapeseed. In fact, it discusses the yield and fat content of modern varieties and hybrids of spring rapeseed domestic and foreign breeding. To conduct this survey, field experiments and laboratory studies in 2015-2017 on the basis of Perm Gatu was carried out. The object of research was the following varieties of spring rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. Oleifera annua Metzqer): Warrior; Smilla; Is mischievous; solar CL; Mobile KL; Salsa CL; Macro; Trapper; Caliber; Akhat; Miracle.Eventually, as a conclusion, a comparative analysis of yield data showed that the domestic variety Warrior and foreign hybrids are equivalent in yield. The fat content has some variations in varieties and hybrids, but the gross collection of fat is largely dependent on the yield; that is, the formation of oilseeds per unit area is largely dependent on productivity.Having said that, another contributing factor affecting the result was the climate. For instance, based on the information acquired, the most responsive to the improvement of weather conditions over the years of research for the studied spring rape hybrids were the varieties Akhat and Smilla. All things considered, this study has attempted to investigate influential factors separately and determine their roles.
Spring Rape, Variety, Hybrid, Yield, Fat Content
Danifovich A. E, Sergeevna B. A. Role of Varieties in the Formation of Oil-Main Raw Materials from Spring Rape Seed. Biosc.Biotech.Res.Comm. 2020;13(4).
Danifovich A. E, Sergeevna B. A. Role of Varieties in the Formation of Oil-Main Raw Materials from Spring Rape Seed. Biosc.Biotech.Res.Comm. 2020;13(4). Available from: https://bit.ly/3eUn27y
Cultivation of adaptive, high-yielding biloba varieties and spring rape hybrids is the basis for obtaining high and sustainable yields. These varieties and hybrids can significantly improve the efficiency of oilseed production without increasing the anthropogenic load (Bome, 2000; Artyomov & Karpachev, 2005; Zhuchenko, 2005; Stepanova, and Rozhkova, 2020). Scientists believe that the introduction in production of highly productive and adaptive varieties of spring rape can increase its yield by 25% (Korchagin, 2001; Gorshkov, 2005; Abuova, 2012; Krček et al., 2019).
Many scientists believe that hybrids are the most productive; they ripen faster and are resistant to lodging. According to Karpachova creating and introducing into production of spring rape hybrids can increase these figures by another 10-15% (Karpachova, 2008; Karpachev, 2008). According to S.I. In Astashina the yield of hybrids is 32-49% higher, and the collection of fat is 43-65% per unit area (Astashina and Astashin, 2018). Some scientists note the advantage of foreign hybrids compared to Russian varieties. So, in the experiments of Wafina (Wafina et al., 2010) productivity had a hybrid of SV Sfinto. In the study of Gromova and his colleagues, the yield of the Hybrido and Siesta hybrids was 0.81 and 0.45 t/ha, respectively, higher than the variety Warrior (0.98 t/ha) (Gromova et al. 2009). The siesta hybrid was more fruitful than the Warrior variety and in the research of Gulidova and Zubkov (Gulidova and Zubkova, 2012).
In the conditions of the south of the Central Black Earth region Pavlyuk (2013) recommends cultivating hybrids Siesta and Mobile KL. In extremely dry seasons, the author proposes to cultivate hybrids of Hidalgo, Mobil KL, Salsa KL and Trapper. However, according to Seryogina, it is necessary to continue exploring hybrids due to the long period of maturation compared with domestic varieties (Sryogina 2014; Rozhkova, 2020). Thus, the introduction into the production of new varieties and hybrids of spring rape can increase the yield of both seeds and the oil content in them; increases resistance to abiotic stressful conditions, diseases and pests. However, it is essential to remember/realize that cultivation of all varieties and hybrids is not possible in a particular area. Hence, it is preferable to consider zoned ones (Fridrihsone, 2020). Therefore, the aim of the research is to compare foreign hybrids with domestic varieties in terms of yield and oil content.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
To solve research tasks, we conducted field experiments and laboratory studies in 2015-2017 on the basis of Perm Gatu. (Astashina and Astashin, 2018). The object of research was the following varieties of spring rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. Oleifera annua Metzqer): Warrior; Smilla; Is mischievous; solar CL; Mobile KL; Salsa CL; Macro; Trapper; Caliber; Akhat; Miracle. The repetition of the experience is threefold, and the placement of options is systematic. Accounting area plots 54 m2.Experiments were carried out on sod-fine-podzolic heavy loamy soil typical of the Middle Urals. The arable layer was characterized by medium cultivation. Agrotechnology in the experiments corresponded to the scientific system of agriculture recommended for the Middle Urals (Akmanaev, 2012; Krček et al., 2019). The content of crude fat was determined according to GOST 13496.15-97 (GOST 13496.15-97, 1992).The significance of differences in the yield and fat content of varieties and hybrids was calculated by the method described by Armor (Armor, 2011). The ecological plasticity of varieties was compared by the method proposed by S.A. Eberhart and W.A. Russell (Eberhart & Russell, 1996).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
A comparative assessment of the domestic variety Warrior and foreign hybrids of spring rapeseed on the yield of oilseeds show that they are equivalent (Table 1).However, in 2015 and 2016 Miracle hybrid provided an increase of 0.74 and 0.92 t/ha of seeds, respectively, compared with Warrior. In 2015, the hybrids Solar KL and Akhat also surpassed the control variant in terms of crop yield by 2.0 and 1.9 times. In 2017, the yield of all studied variants did not differ from the standard. The best of foreign hybrids Smilla surpassed in productivity hybrids Ozorno, Solar KL, Mobile KL, Macro by 1.12; 1.16; 1.22 and 1.02 t/ha, respectively (Krček et al., 2019).
According to the data obtained, the most responsive to the improvement of weather conditions over the years of research for the studied spring rape hybrids were the varieties Akhat and Smilla. These hybrids are demanding to a high level of agricultural technology, as only in this case they will give the maximum return. In these studies, the Salsa KL, Ozorno, Mobile KL and Miracle hybrids were the least responsive to improving growing conditions (Rozhkova, 2020).
Table 1. Productivity and environmental plasticity varieties and hybrids of spring rape, t/ha oilseeds
Thus, when selecting varieties and hybrids in a particular farm, it is necessary to focus not only on the level of yield of a breeding achievement, but also on its responsiveness to growing conditions. On average, over three years, the advantage in fat content was observed in the hybrid Akhat, Ozorno, Macro and Trapper (table 2). These varieties in the seeds formed more than 46% fat. The variety Warrior in all the years of research was inferior to them in this indicator. In 2015, the highest fat content of 44.2% was observed in the Macro hybrid. Somewhat less fat, 42.3% in seeds accumulated the Akhat hybrid. Hybrids Mobile KL and Salsa KL were also distinguished by a large presence of fat in the seeds. The lowest-fat content in the seeds of the 2015 crop was observed for the Solar CL hybrid.
In 2016, the highest fat content was observed in the seeds of hybrids Ozorno, Solar KL and Caliber (Gains to the control were 5.6-6.6%). Somewhat lower fat content was recorded in the seeds of Smill’s hybrid 41.7%, which is 0.8% more than in the variety Warrior.
Table 2. Content and gross collection of fat varieties and hybrids of spring rape
|Sort||Fat content, %||Gross collection of fat, kg/ha|
|2015 year||2016 year||2017 year||the average||2015 year||2016 year||2017 year||the average|
The weather conditions of 2017 contributed to a greater accumulation of fat in them. The highest values of this indicator were observed in the Trapper and Akhat hybrids (53.4 and 54.3%, respectively, which is 4.5 and 5.4% more than in the Warrior variety). The Smilla and Caliber hybrids contained the same amount of fat in their seeds as the Warrior variety. The remaining options provided an increase in this indicator from 1.2 to 4.0%.
On average, for three years of studies on the gross fat collection, the studied varieties and hybrids were comparable. At the same time, trends in increasing the gross fat collection per unit area of the Smilla, Akhat and Miracle hybrids have been revealed. However, these trends have not been proved by mathematical processing and are associated with an increased fat collection from 1 ha over the years. In 2015, the highest gross yield of fat per unit area was obtained in the variants with hybrids Solar KL and Akhat, 773 and 859 kg/ha, respectively, which is 1.9-2.1 times more than the variety Warrior. In 2016, the Miracle Hybrid had the advantage, and in 2017, Smilla had the advantage.Thus, the production of oilseeds from varieties and hybrids of spring rape from a unit area is more dependent on the yield of seeds and less on the fat content in them.
Since the role of genetic potential, biological features and climate circumstances in selecting choosing a variety for cultivation are beyond question, this study investigated the role of varieties in the formation of oil-main raw materials from spring rapeseed, including the yield and fat content of modern varieties and hybrids of spring rapeseed domestic and foreign breeding. The results based on the data obtained from the experiment conducted demonstrated that the domestic variety Warrior and foreign hybrids are equivalent in yield. Besides, the fat content has some variations in varieties and hybrids, but the gross collection of fat is dependent mainly on the yield.
Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest
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