Bioscience Biotechnology Research Communications

An Open Access International Journal

P-ISSN: 0974-6455 E-ISSN: 2321-4007

Bioscience Biotechnology Research Communications

An Open Access International Journal

Adel Alkahtani

University of Jeddah, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Corresponding author Email: aalqahtani@uj.edu.sa

Article Publishing History

Received: 03/11/2018

Accepted After Revision: 19/12/2018

ABSTRACT:

The Arabic language is the most powerful link between the Arab people and the Islamic people, which participated in the flourishing of the Arab-Islamic culture. In this sense, the Arab consensus and Islamic solidarity must be based on this strong foundation: the language of the Holy Quran and the language of Arab Islamic culture. Hence, the great importance of strengthening the status of the Arabic language, spreading it and teaching it, even to non-Muslim people, is of great importance. Because it is a protection for the cultural and cultural security of the Arab Islamic nation. On other side, the computer is a learning tool and a tool in the teaching and learning process. As a result of the developments in this era – the information age – the computer has witnessed a qualitative development in the service of the educational process, it provides many of the auxiliary effects that contribute clearly to the content of the course by Colors, sounds, images, static and moving contrary to the traditional teaching methods and methods used in education, and the advantages of the use of computers in the educational environment ability to provide the scientific material in a systematic and appropriate to the capabilities of students, so that the student or teacher to restore the Wei again and again so that the student can understand and mastery. Thus, this article try to discuss the role of computers and information technology in the teaching of Arabic language” in an attempts to answer the following problem: What is the role of computers in teaching Arabic language and what are the areas of its use? Also, the article shed the light on the main challenges that face teaching Arabic language in the era of computation and advanced information technology.

KEYWORDS:

Information Technology – Educational Aids, Educational Process, Arabic Language, Computer, Holy Quran- Teaching And Learning

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Alkahtani A. Learning Arabic Language in the Age of Computing Between Reality and Hope: Ambition and Challenges. Biosc.Biotech.Res.Comm. VOL 12 NO1 (Spl Issue February) 2019.


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Introduction

In the last quarter of the twentieth century, the world witnessed an amazing pace of change Which have spread in the scientific, economic, social and political spheres and have known the means of communication. The transfer of knowledge was a stunning development accompanied by an explosion in computer technology and information led to a change in how to get knowledge, and on various subjects and dictionaries in CDs, if they are Globalization is an imperative necessitated by political, economic and cultural transformations With this new global situation to be able to participate effectively in social development, to achieve. It is necessary to develop scientific thought and renew the means of education through the use of audio and visual [1].

One of the progress and advancement of any nation is its interest and keenness to master its language and its steadfastness in the provision of extraneous languages. Language is an important part of the components of identity, and every nation hovers to progress and rise and rise on the brink of growth and development is developing its language is a development that combines Originality and contemporary.

Language is a means of understanding among the members of the nation and is the lifeblood of societies where understanding is achieved. It is the foundation upon which the child depends – after God – to gain the skills and expertise he assigns to communicate with his environment, through which he can understand and interact with that environment first, and with the nation to which he belongs Second, it is linked to its religious, cultural and intellectual heritage, and language is the medium that reaches the knee Civilization and the introduction of rapid development, and a large area to express the feelings and feelings in the soul and complete maritime views, in which the development of his character. The teaching of Arabic is not an innovation of science and the arts [2].

The education must be subject to modern theories in the teaching of science in general and the teaching of languages, especially in primary or secondary languages. It is necessary to keep pace with the educational process of these changes to address the problems that may result, such as: the abundance of information, the increase in the number of students, the shortage of qualified teachers, the distance, the increasing need for education, And the emergence of the concept of lifelong learning. These changes have led to the emergence of many patterns of individual or self-learning in which the learner moves according to his abilities and abilities, and the speed of his learning, according to his previous experiences and skills. New educational concepts have emerged, such as the concept of programmed education, the concept of computer-based learning, and the concept of distance education, in which a student learns anywhere without the need for a permanent teacher.

It is necessary to teach the Arabic language – in particular – to gain the learner the ability to deal with information, how to obtain it from multiple sources, and how to organize this information and employment, and the ability to link information, and the recognition of mutual relations, and the development of new information, As well as the ability to absorb the outputs and use of modern technologies, and the skill of maintaining them, and maintenance and development of performance. At the other end, the heads of information technology and the support of the owners of the Arabic language and its specialists to adapt the technology to the Arabic language and not vice versa, may require a new definition of some of the concepts of Arabic language and rules, but in the same language and language [3].

Therefore, it is necessary to serve the Arabic language in terms of supporting software, such as exchange software, grammar, semantic aids, translations into and from Arabic, maps of linguistic concepts, study of linguistic phenomena, etc. But we are facing a problem in the culture of many Arabic language specialists and teachers towards the field of information technology to serve the Arabic language. There is also a digital divide between these language specialists and their students who were brought up in modern technology, the most important of which is information technology. On the other hand, there are a number of demands to be adopted when adopting the use of technology in teaching and learning Arabic. There are also many methods and applications used to teach Arabic. For example, language labs should be used in the teaching of Arabic speakers, and the labs are now used to teach us – we are Arabs – English.

There are some obstacles to the use of technology in our education in general and in the teaching of the Arabic language in particular, some of which some teachers believe that the use of technology in education may eliminate the role of the teacher, where the learner can receive his lessons directly, without the need. But the fact that the role of the teacher from the teacher to the director or counselor of education changes, through the planning of the educational situation, in the framework of the method of systems and selection of sources of learning that fit with the goals planned and record his observations on the progress of the learner and then directed.

In conclusion, we find that the Arabic language today is witnessing Arab and global challenges in the present era not only from its opponents, but also from its own people, because of the current circumstances surrounding it, including the launching of calls to marginalize it, change its features, or diminish its function and ability. The vitality of the Arabic language again in an attractive manner by teaching it functionally in the fields of science and knowledge, and creating an artistic and creative taste among the learners, especially the young ones; to get to learn the Arabic language in a modern manner that inspires in its children a sense of its value and valuable treasures. At that they can use in all linguistic situations – literary and scientific.

The Importance Of Learning Arabic & Its Relationship With Computer Technology

The Arabic language is called the language of the oppressed, the language of reluctance, the standard language, and the language Eternal has reached us through transportation, and saved us the Holy Quran. The Arabic language is a pot thought and mirror of human civilization reflected in the concepts of communication between humans and means of communication. It is easy for him to pay attention to them, and it is sufficient for the Arabic language to be elevated and honorable, because it is the language of revelation Hakim to bring people out of the darkness to the light, has been attached to the Ajam through the Holy Quran, and their tongues stopped, and they seized their tongues, and almost forgot them [4].

The Arabic language represents the Book of God, the highest Arabic speech and its name and the splendor of the Qur’an and its eloquence and clarity And his language, the Arabic language and the language of the Prophet peace be upon him and the transfer of his conversations Prophet Muhammad It was the year of the cleansing, and in Arabic, the Arabic culture, the language of eloquence, luxury and wisdom Power and rhetoric. The Arabic language was distinguished between languages as a language with a large and significant balance in prose different types and hair on different objects and subjects and this balance is in itself a treasure of treasures of our Arab Islamic civilization. The Arabic language with its poetry, prose, rules, individualities and methods is an large element of culture is the subject of attention and study in all corners of the earth.

The Arabic language has a lot of advantages given by:-

  • The language of the pot of thought, defined for its special and general features and influential in its present and future and the target thereof.
  • Arabic, like other languages, is the instrument of expression of our civilization for thousands of years.
  • Arabic is the book that God has promised to save.

So, there is a need to experiment with modern methods and methods through which language weakness can be addressed is therefore urgently needed Arabic, accordingly it works on its development and from those educational means (computer).

Educational means are used as a means of learning and lead to learning The research has shown that students learn more and become more attractive I used the educational means that raise more than the sense of them, the sharing of senses of hearing and sight In learning it is better to use hearing alone. Educational means are an integral part of teaching methods and have a role to play in Educational process, and the need to use them in our time. Teaching aids also have great value and relevance in the process of teaching your language skills Learner, and show that importance through many evidence, including [5]:

  • Stabilization of information in the mind of the learner: has confirmed many studies conducted in the states that the learner can (remember 10% of what he read and 20% of what he heard, and 30% of that, 50% of what he heard and saw at the same time, 70% of what he said, and 90% of what he did).
  • Means that if learning is done by more than one sense, it leads to a higher recall rate and learning more effective.

The advantage of using the computer in the educational environment, for example, is that it provides many Auxiliary influences that clearly contribute to the presentation of the content in an interesting way through the use of colors, sounds and images, static and moving contrary to the traditional ways and means of education The computer also distinguishes its ability to provide the scientific material in an organized manner and a level commensurate with the capabilities of students, so that the student or teacher to re-content time and time again, So that the student can understand and master.

The computer is used in language learning in particular; to learn language skills, whether Mother tongue, or foreign language. Computer technology has been used as an educational tool to assist language learners; To develop their language skills, thus constituting an integral element in addition to other teaching methods Helps create an active, linguistically rich learning environment.

The computer was actually used in language learning in the 1960s and language learning programs were developed Computer-aided English with the early 1980s, and the use of computers Assistant in the teaching of languages and learning stages of three as the first phase began an idea in the fifties, Applied in the 1960s, and based on the behavioral theory that made the computer an ideal tool Because it allows repeated learning of the material many times. The second phase has started in 1970s, continued during the eighties, and based on the principles of communication theory, was the cause The prevalence of this theory is the criticism of behavioral theory; On which the theory of behavior depends on repetition, and thus lack the communication factor; The theory of communication on the student’s use of language in real-world purposes, the student is evaluated based on Give it the answer, not through the mistakes it makes. Many programs have been developed that this theory is based on education and gives some control and freedom during learning [6].

The main Obstacles of using computer in education are summarized as follows:

  • Lack of specialized frameworks in the field of educational computer in the education system in different countries and few adequate awareness of the importance of introducing computers in the field of education.
  • Lack of appropriate high-level software because of the considerable effort required to design Software and writing.
  • The scarcity of educational programs in Arabic, where this is an obstacle to the expansion of the introduction Computer Education.
  • The computer does not provide opportunities for proper social interaction among students themselves during learning. Learning Arabic has become a science that receives the attention and attention of researchers and specialists in Unfortunately, we find this interest extended to the use of technology in particular the computer. If there are no programs dedicated to teaching the Arabic language, whether to her parents or to other people, only what although there are Arab societies that have limited interest in heritage aspects of the language Arabic language without attention to an important aspect of language and computer linguistics attention in the design of programs in e-learning, including the following:-
  • Develop a computer program that develops the need of Darcy Arabic and fits them all regardless of level their linguistic competence
  • Providing content in fluent Arabic.
  • Reassuring the Arabic language and heritage and intensifying its teaching in general education materials.
  • To guide users of Arabic dictionaries to the importance of electronic dictionaries.

The Major Privileges Of E-Learning Approach

  • Increase communicationbetween students, between students and teachers through easy communication between these parties in several directions such as discussion boards, e-mail, dialogue rooms. The researcher believes that these things increase and stimulate students to participate and interact with the topics in question.
  • Contribution to the different views of students:
    E – learning allows the exchange of views on the topics raised, increasing the opportunities to benefit from the views and proposals put forward and integrated with the views of the student and this helps to form a solid basis for the learner and has a strong knowledge and opinions and through the acquired Of knowledge and skills through dialogue rooms.
  • Sense of equality:The tools of communication allow every student the opportunity to express his opinion at any time without embarrassment, unlike the traditional classrooms that deprive him of this feature either because of the poor organization of the seats, or the weakness of the student’s voice itself, or shame or other reasons, This type of education allows students to send their opinion and voice through available communication tools. This feature is more useful for students who are afraid and anxious because this method of education makes students more daring to express their ideas and find facts than they would in the classroom Traditional [7].
  • Easy access to the teacher:E – learning has made it easier to get the teacher and access to it as soon as possible outside the official working hours, because the trainee has been able to send inquiries to the teacher, and this advantage is more useful and appropriate for the teacher rather than stay confined in a library.
  • The possibility of adapting the teaching methods: Receive the scientific material in a way that suits the student, some of which fit the visual method, including the method of audio or read, and some suit the method of practice.
  • Fit different methods of education:Allows the learner to focus on important ideas while writing and compilation of the lecture or lesson, and also allows students who have difficulty concentrating and organize tasks benefit from the material because they are arranged and coordinated in an easy and good and important elements are specific.
  • Additional help on repetition:An added advantage for those who learn in practice. Those who learn through training, if they want to express their ideas, put them in certain sentences, which means that they repeat the information they have been trained on, as students do when preparing for a particular exam.
  • The availability of curricula throughout the day and on all days of the week:useful for people who are moody or who want to education at a certain time, as well as those who bear the burdens and personal responsibilities, this feature allows everyone to learn in a time that suits them.
  • Continuity in access to the curriculum:makes it able to get the information at a time that suits him

Developing The Skills Of Learning Arabic Language According To The Data Of Contemporary Technology

Education in the information age is moving towards the diversity of knowledge and skills, and it has become possible for the school, thanks to computers and information and communication technology, to simulate the external reality within its walls. Having had many ways to communicate directly with the sources of knowledge, it became a belief that information technology was the effective means of transferring reality and vitality to school so that education would become more realistic and interesting [8].

If we look at the Arab learner, we see that he is studying all the Arabic language courses, but we notice deficiencies or weaknesses in the basic points of skills. Therefore, we must focus in our Arabic courses on high skills in the Arabic language to reach the creative learner. This can only be achieved through the development and activation of the language skills, which are appropriate to the age and intellectual level of the learner:

  • Reading (active and conscious, both speed and depth of understanding).
  • Conversation: (Clearly understandable, masked, evidence-based, and proof-based).
  • Listening to language speakers and understanding their meaning directly.

However, acquiring and possessing these skills requires the creation of an appropriate atmosphere and conducive conditions, which are reflected in the use of the modern age data (education technology), such as language laboratories, computers, the Internet, the video room, the theater, etc. Focusing on the use of fluent Arabic, direct communication and direct expression will make the study hall an arena for practicing language skills, using the video room for listening and viewing, and the modern computer, which is connected to the Internet. The goal is to emphasize the practical, practical, and attention to the functional aspect related to the future learner’s life, develop his abilities, satisfy his tendencies and achieve serious benefit for him, while training him in ways of collecting information, which helps him to exploit his time in a fun way. This is called “smart class”: the ability to self-learn, to create, to acquire skills and experiences, by employing modern technology, which helps the student succeed in benefiting from his or her own experiences by direct practice [9].

Therefore, modern education emphasizes the importance of caring for the learners’ ability to use language skills, which helps them to use Arabic in vital situations. This ability is achieved not only by defining the language and rules of use, but also by random learning based on repetition and not based on diagnosing the reality of learners. Unless it is training on sound practices, to consolidate and stabilize these correct responses. This is reflected in the teaching of spelling in the primary stage, for example: where it is by dictating phrases and sentences to the learners, followed by correction and so, there is no doubt that spelling in this picture is a kind of test, but is supposed to be preceded by the process of education and training through using technology, so that the learner can acquire the skill better, in an interesting and enjoyable way, where he has this method of technology (computer), the skill of correcting his spelling mistakes himself, and rewriting in a multi-choice attempt to reach the correct answer, And dealing with it easily, but the teacher has a suitable tool, which can be used to diagnose the level of students, and their weaknesses in written skills. Now we wonder how to develop Arabic language skills: listening, reading, writing, expression, according to modern technology:-

  • Listening skills

The listening is of great importance, it is the art of all the arts of speaking, reading and writing. It was therefore necessary to take care and attention to the skills and experiences that would improve the listening ability through achievement tests, to provide appropriate grades as well as other language skills, to provide all assistance in their application, and to implement them in the field of education from media, recording devices and other The learner needs a variety of texts, based on listening positions, materials, functions in school and working life, and his needs, especially in the first stage of basic education, which can be used in the use of texts of starting, reading and adapting, And other materials to listen, can achieve the goals in a better way, especially if we note the need for good listening, and its impact on communication, understanding, and language learning and pronunciation spontaneous and natural, especially if we use the audio and visual devices, and other means to possess this skill.

  • Oral expression skills

To develop oral expression skills, learners should have many opportunities to practice language in terms of oral expression, vitality, diversity, and responses to practical and natural needs. The text of the starting stage in the first stage is useful in acquiring an initial balance, through teaching listening, to build learning other skills on it. It compensates for the expression by saving written texts that are suitable for the characteristics of the oral language, and does not give expression to the learners and their departure. Which serves the purposes of expression. Note that the written text has characteristics that distinguish it from oral discourse, and its use is not justified in oral expression, unless it is intended to make learners speak orally, as written books do. But using technology, modern means, and mediums we can love them in language and encourage them to gain, by increasing the exercise, and exercises gained by the skills of oral expression. We should also encourage them to be proficient in written expression, in parallel with the oral expression appropriate to their age, level, and interest in modern methods, which have proved to be very useful in the fields of oral and written expression.

  • Reading and memorization skills

Specialists in the field of reading, special software for determining the level of reading, have developed the text used by learners. It determines the level of pacing along the sentence, the length of the word, the difficulty level of the word, or the filling of the appropriate floor space, Basis. This allows the teacher to delete some words of text, and asks the learner to fill the blank with the appropriate word. Such software helps to determine the level of reading in a classroom where the teacher can measure the individual’s ability, and in view of the level of reading, the student is given the best teaching material.

Some programs can help students memorize poems, sayings, chats, and texts. To provide the text and delete some of the implications gradually: or provide the student after each erasure gradually by the correct answer, and to help the accuracy of the preservation, and the understanding of reading, and at the end of the program, to save the entire text, without any hint. In order to develop reading and memorization skills, we need to use literacy content and texts that support listening and expression skills and enrich them, serve reading functions in general, and their functions in student learning and response to their own needs. It is necessary to diversify the reading texts in a variety that is capable of developing literacy tendencies, using the sources of children’s literature and culture, investing in the classroom, the school treasury, video, television, computer, and … to develop the tendency to free reading, interacting withthe various reading materials and selected by students.

  • Writing skills

Writing skills are drawings and mistakes that require strengthening their connection to reading, listening, expression, and taking into account their association with psycho-motor skills, discrimination, drawing and error. Many teachers have suggested the development of special manuals to train on the origins of writing, the line and its controls, and special attention to drawing and handwriting, especially at this stage. He is encouraged by the love of language because it gives him the last assessment of his work. The computer, and modern technology, are able to support and acquire Arabic skills easily, easily and thrilling, but also to teach them very important skills at this stage. The computer skills that the learner can acquire are Arabic word processing skills, and the computer in the school can provide the students with adequate training to acquire the skill of word processing. It has the ability to store and retrieve text, and speed in correcting spelling and grammatical errors without reprinting this activity It should be available to every student in the Arab world, to have the opportunity to train and acquire his skills. The learner has to use it in expression, writing, more quickly, and at a lower cost. Where he immediately sees the words he writes on the screen, corrects and corrects them, and may change the font sizes. And their forms. This creative method of expression is interesting for students, improves their performance in expression, creation, and output of publications, wall magazines and periodicals, and makes them more articulate to express in a sound language, more proficient in spelling and more precise in style and organization [10].

Provide language presentations in a fun, interesting and interesting way by students using computer, The Internet provides active learning that relies on the use of sound, image and motion and see some practical applications in Arabic so that students can practice the language. And attention to develop the four skills of Arabic (listening, speaking, writing and reading) Trendy in line with what the computer and the Internet provides:

  • An exploratory and experimental sense of the learner.
  • Raising thought and satisfying tendencies.
  • Rich opportunities to identify and address errors.
  • The computer provides the self-confidence and the ability to make decisions because it evaluates its own work.

Arabic Language and Challenges of Knowledge and Communication

The Arabic language is currently facing major challenges that can be summed up In making Arabic the language of development, knowledge and communication so that they are able to be the language that Knowledge, and also the language that produces and disseminates the knowledge that members of the community communicate. and therefore the biggest challenge of the Arabic language is its transformation into a language for spreading knowledge. Since there are other modes like. The World Wide Web of Information and various technological tools that compete in the dissemination of knowledge, must the language has sufficient content and content. To date, the Arabic language presence in the informatics network is By 1.6%, which is a good number for the beginning of the presence of almost nonexistent. But However, it is far from the figure that the Arabic language can be. There is a good presence of Arabic, and there are other areas where Arabic is needed to encourage and support [11].

Smaller computers are becoming more widely available, new educational programs are appearing in our schools and others in our educational institutions. Many language teachers have begun to write their own learning programs or courses, along with the use of those currently available in the market and education with the help of electronic computers The term used to describe computer programs designed for teaching. It is important not to confuse the term and learning languages with the help of electronic computer, a term called forms. Different types of computer-based instruction.

The usage of information technology in teaching Arabic can be done based on the following:-

  • Integration of linguistic and computer labs and multiple presentation programs.
  • Adoption of the methods of searching and extrapolation of the Arabic language on the computer.
  • Encourage students to write and communicate with others through different communication technologies.
  • Utilization of the programming systems and applications designed for the Arab user such as:
  • Automatic drainage, which is based on the analysis of the word to its derivational and discharge elements.
  • Automatic expression and semantic analysis, which extracts the meanings of words from their context and determines the extent of correlation and consistency of sentences with each other.
  • Using databases, dictionaries and electronic dictionaries (Internet)

There are many reasons why computers are used in education:-

  • Knowledge explosion and the flow of information where this era is called the era of information revolution.
  • Need for speed in the information age: because this era is the age of speed, making Human beings need to deal with this vast amount of information.
  • Finding solutions to the problems of learning difficulties facing learners in general and children of Arabic language especially where studies have shown that the computer has an important role in helping to solve learning difficulties.
  • Improve future job opportunities by preparing students for a world of advanced technology

In order for the teacher to become important in guiding students to the right direction to make the most of the technology, the teacher should do the following:-

  • To transform his or her classroom from a place where information is transferred in a consistent and one-way direction from the teacher to the learner to a dynamic learning environment.
  • To develop a practical understanding of the characteristics and needs of students.
  • To follow the teaching skills take into account the needs and expectations varied and different recipients and there is no doubt that the role of the teacher will always remain, but it becomes more difficult than before, because the teacher is the essence of the educational process so it must be open to all new and flexible to enable him to creativity and innovation.

The adoption of any new educational method often finds supporters and opponents, each with a different view of the other.

Firstly: The point of view of e-learning enthusiasts is:-

  • When schools are connected to the Internet, it makes teachers rethink their old teaching methods.
  • Students have sufficient capacity to use technology.
  • Using the computer to transmit energy to students.
  • Using the computer makes the classroom a learning environment that is interactive
  • The use of the computer makes students feel confident and responsible. The use of computers leads to the development of students’ ability to work as a team.
  • E-learning makes students think creatively to reach solutions.

Second: The point of view of opponents is:-

  • E-learning requires an intensive effort to train and qualify teachers and students in particular in preparation for this experiment in conditions of
  • widespread technical illiteracy in society.
  • Linking e-learning with other technical factors such as the efficiency of
  • communication networks, the availability of hardware and software, continuous electricity flow, and the ability to produce programs professionally
  • Cost factor in production and maintenance.
  • E-learning weakens the teacher’s role as an important educational and educational influence.
  • The frequent use of technology at home, school and daily life may lead to the boredom of the learner of these media and lack of seriousness in dealing with it.

Concluded Comments

The teaching of Arabic through the use of e-learning brings life and movement in the formation of educational attitudes, and makes them full of freshness and vitality needed by the process of teaching the article, which positively affected the student’s achievement. Also, teaching in e-learning requires more time, effort and skill than the teacher when using traditional methods and methods. Finally, through this research work, we reach to the following results:-

  • The use of computer in teaching Arabic makes Arabic language more interesting and attractive for students.
  • The use of technology in teaching Arabic is a means of preserving it and a guide. However, the language is able to cope with the developments of this age.
  • High cost of computers and programs.
  • The need of some teachers for longer time and training courses to learn how to use the computer in education the language.
  • The goal of teaching Arabic language using computers is to respond to those who are accused of language with sternness and lack of The ability to keep pace with civilization and its proof of the ability of the Arabic language to meet the challenges addressed to them.

References

  1. Zainham, Abu Hajjaj, 2004, Some Characteristics of the Structure of the Reading Text in the Basic Seminar, Cairo, Journal of Reading and Knowledge, 4th Conference of the Reading and Knowledge Society.
  2. Shehata, 2004, teaching Arabic language between theory and practice, Cairo, the Egyptian Egyptian publishing house.
  3. Ashour, Rateb Kassem, Al-Hawamdeh, 2007, Mohamed Fouad, Methods of teaching Arabic language between theory and practice, i 7, Dar al-Masirah for publication and distribution.
  4. Attia, Mohsen Ali, 2008, Strategies and Strategies in Effective Teaching, Jordan, Amman, Dar Safa for Publishing and Distribution.
  5. Ahmed Youssef 2004: Educational computer and its educational applications
  6. Hersh, Ayed Hamdan, 2004, Educational software design, production and educational applications, Dar Al-Masirah, Amman, Jordan.
  7. Musa, Abdullah and Mubarak, Ahmed, 2004 E-learning foundations and applications
  8. Al-Ajili, Sabah Hassan et al., 2001, Principles of Educational Measurement and Evaluation, Ahmed Al-Dabbagh Office, Baghdad, Iraq
  9. Aqeel, Fakhir, 2003, Educational and Psychological Glossary, I 2, Shuaa Publishing and Distribution, Syria
  10. Schunk, A.,1998, Effect of Computer Games on Curiosity for Children’s, Pediatric Annals, Vol. 27, part. 2, No.1
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