The Impact of Physical Education on Self-Esteem and Confidence of Orphaned Children
1Hong Bang International University, Vietnam
2An Giang University, Vietnam, 3Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Corresponding author email: email@example.com
Article Publishing History
- Received: 01/01/2020
- Accepted: 25/02/2020
The confidence scale and self-esteem scale have been passed to 68 mental health checkups for children in Grades 3 and 4, at Ho Chi Minh City Primary School, Vietnam. For better resolution, the problem, physical education intervention has been used for comparative research. Previous research indicates that Self-esteem and self-confidence of children in general are poor; Physical education interventions play an important role in improving their self-esteem and confidence. It suggests that the intervention of physical education should be applied more to the study of mental health of children with orphans. From a physical perspective. Educational institutions should focus more on motivating students. The ability to teach as well as encourage them to work in chartered schools. From another perspective, the need for professional training for physical education teachers in orphan schools The school popularizes science teaching methods so that the mental health of children can be improved effectively.
Children Orphan, Physical Education Intervention, Self-esteem, Self-confidence.
Ngoc L. T. A, Thuc D. C. The Impact of Physical Education on Self-Esteem and Confidence of Orphaned Children. Biosc.Biotech.Res.Comm. 2020;13(1).
Ngoc L. T. A, Thuc D. C. The Impact of Physical Education on Self-Esteem and Confidence of Orphaned Children. Biosc.Biotech.Res.Comm. 2020;13(1). Available from: https://bit.ly/2RupF4w
Self-esteem (SE) is considered integral to the self-concept, and can be defined in terms of positive feelings about the self. SE has become a household word. Teachers, parents, therapists, and others have focused efforts on boosting self-esteem, on the assumption that high self-esteem will cause many positive outcomes and benefits (Baumeister et al., 2003). It is integral to an individual’s sense of their own value (Fox & Corbin, 1989), a principal component of mental health (Jambor & Elliott, 2005) a strong indicator of a healthy lifestyle (Smoleňáková & Bendíková, 2017), and an important indicator of well-being (Shek & McEwen, 2012, Lyu et al, 2019).
The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (Rosenberg, 1989) is the most widely used self-report measure of self-esteem and was designed to measure self-esteem as a one-dimensional construct (Dhingra, 2013). The factor structure of this scale, however, has been the subject of considerable debate (Corwyn, 2000). While numerous studies support this one-dimensional model (Shevlin, Bunting & Lewis, 1995), other research has found evidence of a range of multi-factorial solutions (Huang & Dong, 2012). A considerable number of researchers contend that the RSES is more appropriately conceptualized as a two-factor solution, comprised of positive and negative aspects of self-esteem (Kaufmann et al., 1991 Lyu et al 2019).
Self-confidence is a person’s belief in own ability to carry out life tasks, and relates to someone’s competences and self-esteem (Vealey & Chase, 2008) defined self-efficacy as “beliefs in one’s capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to produce given attainments”. According to the theory of self-efficacy, sources of confidence include enactive mastery experiences, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion and physiological and affective states experiences (Bandura, 1997; Hays, Maynard, Thomas & Bandura, 2007). Feltz and Reissinger (1990) applied the self-efficacy theory and found that performance accomplishments was the most significant source of self-efficacy among athletes, followed by physiological states, verbal persuasion and vicarious experiences.
The number of orphan children has increased greatly in Ho Chi Minh City – Vietnam, along with the dissemination of agricultural population policies, the complete expansion of the second child policy and the gradual improvement of the orphan policy school-age population. According to the latest statistics of the Ho Chi Minh City Education Commission, today, more than 8900 students attend an orphaned school run by the private sector. In terms of related surveys, because the quality of private school education is worse than that of public schools, orphans, it is easy to encounter psychological problems due to poor quality teachers and terrible teaching environment as well as photographs potential effects of personality itself. Concerning crimes of orphan children, especially so social groups have sparked widespread public concern. Therefore, more and more scholars are transforming their research into children who are considered orphans, but only at the theoretical level instead of performing physical education interventions for pragmatic discovery. This study aims to find a way to intervene in physical education that affects the confidence and confidence of children who are considered to be able to develop a sound assessment and intervention program. Scientific side for reference.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Based on the previous interview with head teachers and questionnaire accomplished by students of Grade 5, 30 students with less self-esteem and self-confidence in Class 3, Grade 5 were chosen as an experimental group imposed with physical education intervention while 38 students in Class 4, Grade 5 was taken as a control group taught by their former physical education teacher. In this study, the author used a research tool to request self-esteem and confidence assessment. Using SPSS 20.0 software to statistics research results were analyzed, (Dao Chanh Thuc, 2018).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Self-esteem study: The self-esteem scale (SES) designed by Rosenberg and applied in this article has been widely used at home and abroad to measure the overall feeling of youth about village values body and self-acceptance, high reliability, validity and operability. And a total of 136 self-esteem scales with 68 for previous and 68 for the following test is distributed, while each test also distributes 30 for the experiment group and 38 for the corresponding control group, so it is collected with an effective rate of over 80%. According to Earl Babble, the questionnaire with a response rate of over 70% is very effective so that the results of this survey are valid. Finally, the paper conducted analytical data with SPSS20.0 and obtained the following analysis results:
Table 1: Number of people n = 68 having a change in self-esteem in the experiment group after three months of physical education intervention
|10-15 points (very low)||16-25points (low)||26-35 points (normal)||35-40 points (high)||P|
*indicates the significant difference (P<0.05)
According to Table 1, there were 19 people with extremely low self-esteem and 23 people with low self-esteem in the test group, accounting for 61.76% of the total before experiment. After the experiment, the number of people with extremely low self-esteem decreased and 12 people with low self-esteem dropped to 15, accounting for 39.71% of the total in the group. Data analysis showed significant differences (P <0.05) that physical education intervention plays an important role in improving the self-esteem of these students.
Table 2: Number of people n = 68 having self-esteem changes in the control group after three months of normal intervention.
|10-15 points (very low)||16-25 points (low)||26-35 points (normal)||35-40 points (high)||P|
According to Table 2, there are 20 people with extremely low self-esteem and 22 people with low self-esteem in the control group, accounting for 61.76% of the total before intervention. After the intervention, the number of people with extremely low self-esteem still did not change much. Data analysis showed that there was no significant difference (P> 0.05), moreover, students in the control group had less improvement in self-esteem, compared with those in the test group.
Table 3: Number of people n = 68 with a change in confidence in the intervention experimental group and control group after a three-month intervention.
|0-50 points||50-70 points||70-80 points||80-100 points||P|
According to Table 3, before the intervention, the experimental group had 19 people with extremely low confidence levels and 23 people with low confidence in the test group, accounting for 61.76% of the total. After the intervention, the number of people with extremely low confidence fell to 9, while those with low confidence fell to 11, accounting for 29.41% of the total in the group. Data analysis shows that significant differences (P <0.01) that intervention plays an important role in improving the confidence of these students.
With the control group, before the intervention, there are 20 people with extremely low confidence and 24 people with low confidence in the control group, accounting for 64.71% of the total. After the intervention, the number of people with extremely low confidence levels dropped to 18, while those with low confidence levels dropped to 26, accounting for 64.71% of the total. Data analysis showed that there was no significant difference (P> 0.05) (Dao Chanh Thuc, 2018), moreover, that the students in the control group had poor performance in terms of confidence level compared to those in the control group.
Teaching experiment: Program Design: Because teaching in the classroom is the main part of the physical education intervention program, the author first consulted with many experts and professors in designing the education program, substance of the Institute of Physical Education at the University of Sports in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, then refered to the documents related to the psychological health of teenagers and children. Based on full theoretical support of self-esteem and confidence, the program not only focuses on basketball and karate, but also includes many interesting and challenging sub-projects, considering both benefits, physically and mentally for children to see.
Details are shown in the following table (Table 4):
Table 4: Physical education intervention program
|Time||Intervention project||Times per week||Time required||Intensity|
|1-3 week||Track and field||3||45-50 min||Medium|
|4-8 week||Basketball||3||45-50 min||Medium|
|9-12 week||Karatedo||3||45-50 min||Medium|
Experimental methods: Students with lower self-esteem and confidence are grouped together during practice or group games. Meanwhile, based on the principle of discrimination, challenging goals are set in Teaching at different levels of students Self-esteem and confidence. For example, when it comes to the chest of basketball, pay more attention to standards than accuracy as students have low self-esteem and confidence and then give a corresponding assessment of passing, allowing them to accurately identify their strengths and weaknesses (Lyu, et al 2019).
Combined with the rule of principle teachers, students should be encouraged to actively participate in activities so that teachers can provide timely and full recognition.Also, it is necessary to control their negative emotions caused by positive failures. Playing basketball, as an illustration, teachers will find its results to inspire students to create a record and compare distances before and after they learn about standard movement. At the end of this class, the discussion was introduced to class recollections and shared comments, especially for students with lower confidence and confidence. Therefore, what they conclude from reflection can be done to solve the problem of practical problems.
Result of experiment: Through distributing some challenging assignments which are modifiable in practice, teaching activities are not only suitable for students with lower self-esteem and self-confidence to increase self-awareness in a positive way, but also applicable for students with better self-recognition to achieve sense of joy and sense of accomplishment, from which both groups are able to obtain impetus for future improvement. With regard to students with less progress, it is necessary to help them draw lessons from the past experience to strengthen self-confidence. Once they have a conception of self-evaluation will it be possible to further stimulate their potential? In the review section, discussion amongst students and teachers contributes to a broader horizon and intensified capacity of expression.
Testing extracurricular activities: Program design: Extracurricular activities are complementary to the entire teaching system, with autonomy, flexibility and reality. Details are presented as follows (Table 5):
Table 5: Extracurricular activities intervention program
|Intervention time||Intervention project||Time required|
|The beginning of the first month||Quality development||45-50 min|
|The beginning of the second month||Inspirational storytelling||45-50 min|
|The beginning of the third month||See microfilms inspirational sports||45-50 min|
Experimental process: The first intervention of extracurricular activity took place before the class officially started; Quality development activities are carried out on the topic of ice breaking. After a brief introduction, the teachers and students were grouped to play the “Meo duoi chuot” game, asking students to tear up the name tag stuck on each other’s back in the order of the teacher. The three rounds of the game have led to a good relationship between teachers and students as well as better mutual understanding among students, creating a solid foundation for the intervention of the following physical education system.
The second intervention of extracurricular activities was put into practice after a month of physical education intervention in class, to share inspirational stories of sports celebrities. To begin with, students were asked about self-esteem and self-confidence, then shared stories about how sports celebrities win over difficulties and create an achievement. another great (Yu, 2019). They were not only asked to discuss stories, but were also given homework to read more relevant documents. Such activities are conducive to exemplary and influential examples for students with lower self-esteem and confidence to understand the relationship between success and self-assertion and enhance self-awareness, (Jun, 2017).
The third extra-curricular activity is the appreciation of the movie “Hai Phuong”. The main character regained self-esteem and confidence underpinned great achievements after a long struggle in hard times, providing students with a motivation to improve themselves. Special instructions have been applied for students with extremely low self-esteem and confidence, and the results are remarkable. For example, opportunities have been provided to them as a stage for self-implementation. Some of them will be encouraged to play a team building role so they can exploit their potential and appreciate what they have. On the other hand, under its frustration caused by many failed experiences, mainly in-class instruction focused on positive instruction while reducing the task’s difficulty to get the feeling of accomplishmen through successful experience and laying the foundation for positive self-assessment. After the intervention, the number of students with extremely low self-esteem and serious guilt declined by half, confirming the positive effect of physical intervention.
Children with orphans often have poor mental health. More than half of the students have shown abnormal levels of self-esteem and self-esteem, and even some of them have extremely low self-esteem and low self-esteem tends to deviate from average development. Therefore, it is necessary to have timely and reasonable interventions to improve. Physical education interventions have the benefit of improving self-esteem and confidence. After performing physical education interventions for three months, data show that some students increase confidence and significantly increase confidence in group experiments while there are no major differences occurring before and after the experiment in the control group. Moreover, after the intervention, students in the experimental group became more active and active in class, especially when there was a significant improvement in students in harsh conditions, thus improving the whole atmosphere, manifesting that physical education intervention has a positive impact on improving the effectiveness of self-esteem and confidence of students in the experimental group.
The effect of physical education applied in this study has been shown to be effective in improving the confidence and self-esteem of children who are considered, so it is hoped that the system will beat The price of confidence and confidence and the sports intervention program set up in this study can be applied by many children who consider schools in society to help them improve their mental health better. In addition, physical education interventions need to be strengthened among students from vulnerable groups, including children with visual impairments, HIV-infected children and children with hearing loss. And should also make corresponding changes based on the physical education intervention program to better explore the impact of their mental health intervention. According to the shortage of physical education teachers at orphanage schools, as well as the lack of long-term curriculum and the orientation of the students in these schools, it is important that colleges and the University of physical education must strengthen the combination of physical education of psychological theory of adolescents. Through establishing cooperative relationships with migrant children’s schools, universities play an active role to encourage students to practice, which not only improves student practice but also contributes part to strengthen psychological health conditions and complete the construction of physical education systems. Furthermore, colleges and universities of physical education can also provide appropriate training for teachers at orphanage schools to improve teaching capacity.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York: W.H. Freeman.
Baumeister, R.F., Campbell, J.D., Krueger, J.I. & Vohs, K.D. (2003). Does high selfesteem cause better performance, interpersonal success, happiness, or healthier lifestyles? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4(1), 1-44.
Corwyn, R. F. (2000). The factor structure of global self-esteem among adolescents and adults. Journal of Research in Personality, 34(4), 357–379.
Dao Chanh Thuc, (2018). Measurement in sports. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, ISBN 978-613-9-90198-2.
Dhingra K. (2013). Validity and Composite Reliability of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale among U.K. University Students. Journal of Humanistics & Social Sciences, 2(1), 24-30.
Feltz, D. L., & Riessinger, C. A. (1990). Effects of in vivo emotive imagery and performance feedback on selfefficacy and muscular endurance. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 12, 132 – 143.
Fox, K.R. & Corbin, C.B. (1989). The physical self-perception profile: Development and preliminary validation. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11(4), 408–430.
Hays, K., Maynard, I., Thomas, O., & Bandura, M. (2007). Sources and types of confidence identified by world class sport performers. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 19 (4), 434-456.
Huang, C. & Dong, N. (2012). Factor structures of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: A meta- analysis of pattern matrices. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 28(2), 132-138.
Jambor, E. & Elliott, M. (2005). Self-esteem and coping strategies among deaf students. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 10(1), 63–81.
Jun, J., (2017). Research on the present situation of college students’ sense of inferiority and its intervention easures in physical exercise. J Anyang Teach College, 5, pp. 120-124.
Kaufman, P., Rasinski, K.A., Lee, R. & West, J. (1991). National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988. Quality of the responses of eighth-grade students in NELS88. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.
Lyu H, Gang Du, and Kimberly Rios (2019) The Relationship Between Future Time Perspective and Self-Esteem: A Cross-Cultural Study of Chinese and American College Students Front Psychol. 2019; 10: 1518.
Rosenberg, M. (1989). Society and the adolescent self-image. (Rev. Ed.). Middeltown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.
Shek, Y.L. & McEwen, M.K. (2012). The relationships of racial identity and gender role conflict to self-esteem of Asian American undergraduate men. Journal of College Student Development, 53(5), 703– 718.
Shevlin, M., Bunting, B.P. & Lewis, C.A. (1995). Confirmatory Factor Analysis of The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Psychological Reports, 76(3), 707-710.
Smoleňáková, N. & Bendíková E. (2017). Effect of the Content Standard for Changing the Level of Knowledge of Secondary School Students. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 17(1), 182 – 187.
Vealey, R. S., & Chase, M. A. (2008). Self-confidence in sport: Conceptual and research advances. In Horn T. S. (Ed), Advances in Sport Psychology (3rd ed.) (pp. 65 – 97). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.