Bioscience Biotechnology Research Communications

An Open Access International Journal

Bioscience Biotechnology Research Communications

An Open Access International Journal

T.S. Vershinina, N.N. Larkova and S.L. Eliseev

FSBEI HE Perm  State Agriculture Technical University SATU Perm, Russia

Article Publishing History

Received: 01/11/2020

Accepted: 20/12/2020

ABSTRACT:

Grain quality is considered an important indicator of the level of development of grain production in any country. Thus, as a result of analyzing the technological indicators of grain quality, we can summarize that in different meteorological conditions, winter rye forms grains of class 3-4 quality, winter wheat and winter triticale – class 3. Dry development and ripening of the grain (HTC less than 1) ensures grain better in nature and vitreousness compared to over moistened years, but does not affect its classiness. The quality of the grain depends on the correct choice of the sowing time of winter crops. In the present study, the experiments were laid out according to generally accepted methods. To determine the technological qualities of grain, samples of the harvest of 2015 and 2016 were taken. Analyses were carried out in the testing laboratory of Perm Agro Service LLC.

KEYWORDS:

Winter Rye, Winter Wheat, Winter Triticale, Sowing Time, Grain Quality

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Vershinina T. S, Larkova N. N, Eliseev S. L. Technological Qualities of Grain of Winter Crops Depending on the Sowing Time and Weather Conditions. Biosc.Biotech.Res.Comm. 2020;13(4).


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Vershinina T. S, Larkova N. N, Eliseev S. L. Technological Qualities of Grain of Winter Crops Depending on the Sowing Time and Weather Conditions. Biosc.Biotech.Res.Comm. 2020;13(4). Available from: https://bit.ly/3kpcXAL


INTRODUCTION

Grain quality is considered an important indicator of the level of development of grain production in any country. There is a problem of insufficient production of bread flour with high technological qualities (Altukhov, 2005; Ismagilov, 2010; Chubenko, 2013). The results of studies by foreign and Russian scientists show that sowing time and weather conditions have a significant impact on crop yields and grain quality (Vasiukov et al., 2008; Kildiushkin et al., 2010; Peremecheva et al., 2007; Tikhonova & Fatykhov, 2013; Thus, the optimal sowing time for obtaining quality grain in each region is different, and its establishment is an important task.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Field studies were carried out in 2014 – 2016 on the educational and experimental field of Perm State Agricultural Academy. The soil of the plot is sod-small podzolic heavy loam, moderately cultivated. Agrotechnical experience corresponds to the scientific system of agriculture recommended for the Cis-Urals (Akmanaev et al., 2012). The precursor is annual herbs for green fodder. Objects of study – winter rye varieties Falonskaya 4, winter wheat Moskovskaya 39, and winter triticale Izhevskaya 2. The seeding rate of winter rye and wheat is 6 million viable seeds per hectare, winter triticale – 5 million viable seeds per hectare. Sowing was carried out in seven terms (Table 1).

The experiments were laid out according to generally accepted methods (Dospechov, 2011). To determine the technological qualities of grain, samples of the harvest of 2015 and 2016 were taken. Analyzes were carried out in the testing laboratory of PermAgroService LLC. The technological qualities of grain were evaluated in accordance with GOSTs (GOST 34023-2016. Triticale. Technical conditions, 2017; GOST R 52554-2006. Wheat. Technical conditions, 2008; GOST R 53049-2008. Rye. Technical conditions, 2011; GOST R 54895-2012, 2013).

Table 1. Sowing time

sowing term No. Planned sowing term Actual sowing term
Second establishment 2014 third establishment

2015

1 (k) August 15 August 15 August 14
2 August 18 August 18 August 21*
3 August 21 August 21 August 24*
4 August 24 August 24 August 29*
5 August 27 August 28* September 4*
6 August 30 September 2* September 10*
7 September 2 September 8* September 12*
*changes in planned sowing time occurred due to heavy precipitation.

Meteorological conditions during the years of research differed in temperature and precipitation. Vegetation period 2014 – 2015 was characterized by moderately warm weather. In the autumn, the drop of average daily air temperature under +5ºС was observed in the first decade of October. In the winter and spring period of plant development thaw observed, which led to an intensive consumption of nutrients for respiration and created conditions for the plants to dry out. In the first half of the spring-summer period 2015, favorable temperature conditions developed for the development of winter crops, but the grain ripening period was characterized by a lowered background temperature and high humidity with a hydrothermal coefficient (HTC) of 1.98, which affected the quality of grain. Agroclimatic conditions 2015-2016 were favorable for the growth and development of winter crops. The end of the autumn growing season also was in the first decade of October. The winter was relatively warm, and the snow melted early. The spring-summer period was characterized as warm and dry. Since the third decade of April, there was a lack of precipitation, the HTC during the period of maturation was 1.1. This ensured the earlier ripening of winter crops, favorable conditions for harvesting and the formation of higher quality grains.

 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In 2015, under unfavorable conditions for grain ripening, the nature of winter rye averaged 647 g/l, which corresponds to the third class of GOST (Table 2). In terms of sowing, the quality varied from the third class, when sowing from the second to the sixth term (641 – 655 g/l), to the fourth class – in the first and seventh terms of sowing (635 – 639 g/l). In terms of the number of fall grain winter rye corresponded only to the fourth class (61 s.). In 2016, under favorable conditions during ripening, the nature of winter rye grain averaged 709 g/l (first class of GOST). According to this indicator, when sown from the first to the fifth term, the grain also corresponded to the first class of GOST for winter rye grain (not less than 700 g/l), while the sixth and seventh term – to the second class (not less than 680 g/l).

In terms of the number of falling when sown from the first to the fourth term, the grain corresponds to the third quality class (81 – 89 s.). In other terms – to the fourth class. Thus, the quality of winter rye grain in the Middle Urals is limited by the influence of weather conditions. In terms of the number of falling, it corresponds to the fourth grade. Grain of the third class can be obtained only under favorable weather conditions and sowing time from August 14 to 29.

Table 2. Technological quality of winter rye grain

Sowing term Nature, g/l Falling number, s.
2015 2016 2015 2016
1 (k) 639 719 61 89
2 647 728 61 84
3 654 722 61 81
4 655 715 61 83
5 656 706 61 77
6 641 686 61 68
7 635 685 61 68
Mean 647 709 61 79

The quality of winter wheat grain also depends on weather conditions (Table 3). In 2015 it was lower in terms of the nature of the grain, on average, corresponded to the third class of GOST (744 g/l). When sown in the fifth and sixth terms, the grain corresponded to the first class, and in the remaining periods – to the third class. The conditions of 2016 allowed for a larger grain of winter wheat to form. The nature of the terms varied within 794 – 802 g/l, which corresponds to the first class of GOST. In terms of the number of falling, grain of winter wheat in 2015 and 2016 corresponded to the requirements of the first class of GOST, regardless of the sowing period. Grain vitreousness met the requirements of the third class in 2015 and the first class in 2016 when sown from the first to the sixth term, and to the third class with the seventh term of sowing.

Table 3. Technological quality of winter wheat grain

Sowing term Nature, g/l Vitreousness, % Falling number, s. Mass fraction of raw gluten, % FDM index, un.
2015 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016
1 (k) 735 802 53 65 401 318 33.0 27.0 76 76
2 737 802 55 69 273 299 29.0 27.0 90 80
3 739 801 52 66 260 306 32.0 33.0 80 85
4 748 800 53 72 324 345 26.0 29.0 76 76
5 764 794 56 66 331 351 26.0 32.0 85 85
6 751 794 53 64 311 326 31.0 34.0 85 90
7 736 781 55 58 256 341 30.0 35.0 80 90
Mean 744 796 54 66 308 327 29.6 31.0 81 83

An important parameter of wheat grain quality is the gluten content. The mass fraction of raw gluten varies depending on weather conditions. The highest percentage on average was observed in 2016 – 31%. In 2015, it was 29.6%. The gluten content, depending on the sowing date, varies in different ways and corresponds to 1 – 3 classes of GOST. The qualitative assessment of gluten indicates that all the samples for the studied sowing dates over the years of research corresponded to the second group of quality – satisfactorily weak. The readings of the FDM device were 76-85 units. Thus, the technological quality of grain, regardless of weather conditions and sowing time, is limited by the quality of raw gluten and corresponds to the third class of GOST. According to other indicators in favorable years, the grain of winter wheat meets the requirements of the first class.

In 2015, the nature of winter triticale grain for all sowing terms was 556 – 593 g/l, and corresponded to the third class of GOST (Table 4). In 2016, triticale grain was formed under dry conditions, the grain nature obtained was of first class when sown from the second to the fifth term (702 – 713 g/l). In the first and sixth terms, the grain corresponded to the second class, and in the seventh term of sowing – to the third class.

Table 4. Technological quality of winter triticale grain

Sowing term Nature, g/l Vitreousness, % Falling number, s.
2015 2016 2015 2016 2015 2016
1 (k) 697 52 68
2 593 709 43 58 61 66
3 592 712 50 65 61 59
4 556 713 53 68 61 66
5 582 702 48 63 61 68
6 566 690 48 65 61 67
7 558 661 50 63 61 63
Mean 492 698 47 62 61 65

Regardless of the year and time of sowing, the vitreousness of winter triticale grain corresponds to the first class of GOST. In 2015, this figure ranged from 43 to 53%; in 2016, the vitreousness of grain was high (52-68%). In terms of the number of falling, the winter triticale grain corresponds to the third class, regardless of weather conditions and sowing time. In 2015 it averaged 61 s., in 2016 – 65 s. Thus, it is possible to obtain third-class triticale grain.

CONCLUSION

Thus, as a result of analyzing the technological indicators of grain quality, we can summarize that in different meteorological conditions, winter rye forms grains of class 3-4 quality, winter wheat and winter triticale – class 3. Dry development and ripening of the grain (HTC less than 1) ensures grain better in nature and vitreousness compared to overmoistened years, but does not affect its classiness.

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