FSBEI HE Perm State Agriculture Technical University SATU Perm, Russia
Article Publishing History
Grain quality is considered an important indicator of the level of development of grain production in any country. Thus, as a result of analyzing the technological indicators of grain quality, we can summarize that in different meteorological conditions, winter rye forms grains of class 3-4 quality, winter wheat and winter triticale – class 3. Dry development and ripening of the grain (HTC less than 1) ensures grain better in nature and vitreousness compared to over moistened years, but does not affect its classiness. The quality of the grain depends on the correct choice of the sowing time of winter crops. In the present study, the experiments were laid out according to generally accepted methods. To determine the technological qualities of grain, samples of the harvest of 2015 and 2016 were taken. Analyses were carried out in the testing laboratory of Perm Agro Service LLC.
Winter Rye, Winter Wheat, Winter Triticale, Sowing Time, Grain Quality
Vershinina T. S, Larkova N. N, Eliseev S. L. Technological Qualities of Grain of Winter Crops Depending on the Sowing Time and Weather Conditions. Biosc.Biotech.Res.Comm. 2020;13(4).
Vershinina T. S, Larkova N. N, Eliseev S. L. Technological Qualities of Grain of Winter Crops Depending on the Sowing Time and Weather Conditions. Biosc.Biotech.Res.Comm. 2020;13(4). Available from: https://bit.ly/3kpcXAL
Grain quality is considered an important indicator of the level of development of grain production in any country. There is a problem of insufficient production of bread flour with high technological qualities (Altukhov, 2005; Ismagilov, 2010; Chubenko, 2013). The results of studies by foreign and Russian scientists show that sowing time and weather conditions have a significant impact on crop yields and grain quality (Vasiukov et al., 2008; Kildiushkin et al., 2010; Peremecheva et al., 2007; Tikhonova & Fatykhov, 2013; Thus, the optimal sowing time for obtaining quality grain in each region is different, and its establishment is an important task.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Field studies were carried out in 2014 – 2016 on the educational and experimental field of Perm State Agricultural Academy. The soil of the plot is sod-small podzolic heavy loam, moderately cultivated. Agrotechnical experience corresponds to the scientific system of agriculture recommended for the Cis-Urals (Akmanaev et al., 2012). The precursor is annual herbs for green fodder. Objects of study – winter rye varieties Falonskaya 4, winter wheat Moskovskaya 39, and winter triticale Izhevskaya 2. The seeding rate of winter rye and wheat is 6 million viable seeds per hectare, winter triticale – 5 million viable seeds per hectare. Sowing was carried out in seven terms (Table 1).
The experiments were laid out according to generally accepted methods (Dospechov, 2011). To determine the technological qualities of grain, samples of the harvest of 2015 and 2016 were taken. Analyzes were carried out in the testing laboratory of PermAgroService LLC. The technological qualities of grain were evaluated in accordance with GOSTs (GOST 34023-2016. Triticale. Technical conditions, 2017; GOST R 52554-2006. Wheat. Technical conditions, 2008; GOST R 53049-2008. Rye. Technical conditions, 2011; GOST R 54895-2012, 2013).
Table 1. Sowing time
|sowing term No.||Planned sowing term||Actual sowing term|
|Second establishment 2014||third establishment
|1 (k)||August 15||August 15||August 14|
|2||August 18||August 18||August 21*|
|3||August 21||August 21||August 24*|
|4||August 24||August 24||August 29*|
|5||August 27||August 28*||September 4*|
|6||August 30||September 2*||September 10*|
|7||September 2||September 8*||September 12*|
|*changes in planned sowing time occurred due to heavy precipitation.|
Meteorological conditions during the years of research differed in temperature and precipitation. Vegetation period 2014 – 2015 was characterized by moderately warm weather. In the autumn, the drop of average daily air temperature under +5ºС was observed in the first decade of October. In the winter and spring period of plant development thaw observed, which led to an intensive consumption of nutrients for respiration and created conditions for the plants to dry out. In the first half of the spring-summer period 2015, favorable temperature conditions developed for the development of winter crops, but the grain ripening period was characterized by a lowered background temperature and high humidity with a hydrothermal coefficient (HTC) of 1.98, which affected the quality of grain. Agroclimatic conditions 2015-2016 were favorable for the growth and development of winter crops. The end of the autumn growing season also was in the first decade of October. The winter was relatively warm, and the snow melted early. The spring-summer period was characterized as warm and dry. Since the third decade of April, there was a lack of precipitation, the HTC during the period of maturation was 1.1. This ensured the earlier ripening of winter crops, favorable conditions for harvesting and the formation of higher quality grains.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In 2015, under unfavorable conditions for grain ripening, the nature of winter rye averaged 647 g/l, which corresponds to the third class of GOST (Table 2). In terms of sowing, the quality varied from the third class, when sowing from the second to the sixth term (641 – 655 g/l), to the fourth class – in the first and seventh terms of sowing (635 – 639 g/l). In terms of the number of fall grain winter rye corresponded only to the fourth class (61 s.). In 2016, under favorable conditions during ripening, the nature of winter rye grain averaged 709 g/l (first class of GOST). According to this indicator, when sown from the first to the fifth term, the grain also corresponded to the first class of GOST for winter rye grain (not less than 700 g/l), while the sixth and seventh term – to the second class (not less than 680 g/l).
In terms of the number of falling when sown from the first to the fourth term, the grain corresponds to the third quality class (81 – 89 s.). In other terms – to the fourth class. Thus, the quality of winter rye grain in the Middle Urals is limited by the influence of weather conditions. In terms of the number of falling, it corresponds to the fourth grade. Grain of the third class can be obtained only under favorable weather conditions and sowing time from August 14 to 29.
Table 2. Technological quality of winter rye grain
|Sowing term||Nature, g/l||Falling number, s.|
The quality of winter wheat grain also depends on weather conditions (Table 3). In 2015 it was lower in terms of the nature of the grain, on average, corresponded to the third class of GOST (744 g/l). When sown in the fifth and sixth terms, the grain corresponded to the first class, and in the remaining periods – to the third class. The conditions of 2016 allowed for a larger grain of winter wheat to form. The nature of the terms varied within 794 – 802 g/l, which corresponds to the first class of GOST. In terms of the number of falling, grain of winter wheat in 2015 and 2016 corresponded to the requirements of the first class of GOST, regardless of the sowing period. Grain vitreousness met the requirements of the third class in 2015 and the first class in 2016 when sown from the first to the sixth term, and to the third class with the seventh term of sowing.
Table 3. Technological quality of winter wheat grain
|Sowing term||Nature, g/l||Vitreousness, %||Falling number, s.||Mass fraction of raw gluten, %||FDM index, un.|
An important parameter of wheat grain quality is the gluten content. The mass fraction of raw gluten varies depending on weather conditions. The highest percentage on average was observed in 2016 – 31%. In 2015, it was 29.6%. The gluten content, depending on the sowing date, varies in different ways and corresponds to 1 – 3 classes of GOST. The qualitative assessment of gluten indicates that all the samples for the studied sowing dates over the years of research corresponded to the second group of quality – satisfactorily weak. The readings of the FDM device were 76-85 units. Thus, the technological quality of grain, regardless of weather conditions and sowing time, is limited by the quality of raw gluten and corresponds to the third class of GOST. According to other indicators in favorable years, the grain of winter wheat meets the requirements of the first class.
In 2015, the nature of winter triticale grain for all sowing terms was 556 – 593 g/l, and corresponded to the third class of GOST (Table 4). In 2016, triticale grain was formed under dry conditions, the grain nature obtained was of first class when sown from the second to the fifth term (702 – 713 g/l). In the first and sixth terms, the grain corresponded to the second class, and in the seventh term of sowing – to the third class.
Table 4. Technological quality of winter triticale grain
|Sowing term||Nature, g/l||Vitreousness, %||Falling number, s.|
Regardless of the year and time of sowing, the vitreousness of winter triticale grain corresponds to the first class of GOST. In 2015, this figure ranged from 43 to 53%; in 2016, the vitreousness of grain was high (52-68%). In terms of the number of falling, the winter triticale grain corresponds to the third class, regardless of weather conditions and sowing time. In 2015 it averaged 61 s., in 2016 – 65 s. Thus, it is possible to obtain third-class triticale grain.
Thus, as a result of analyzing the technological indicators of grain quality, we can summarize that in different meteorological conditions, winter rye forms grains of class 3-4 quality, winter wheat and winter triticale – class 3. Dry development and ripening of the grain (HTC less than 1) ensures grain better in nature and vitreousness compared to overmoistened years, but does not affect its classiness.
Akmanaev E D (2012) Innovative technologies in agribusiness: a study guide. Gen ed. Iu.N. Zubarev; Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation, Perm State Agricultural Academy. – Perm: Publishing house of Perm State Agricultural Academy pp 335.
Altukhov A I (2005) The development of innovation in grain farming: problems and solutions. Bulletin of personnel policy, agricultural education and innovation, vol 3 no 1 pp 19-24.
Balashov A V & Malakhova AA (2012) The effect of sowing terms on the yield of winter wheat in the subzone of light brown soils of Volgograd region. Proceedings of the Nizhnevolzhsky agrarian university complex: Science and higher professional education, Vol 3 No 27 pp 37-41.
Chubenko N T (2013) Who is responsible for the quality of the bread? Bakery of Russia, vol 1, pp 4-6.
Egushova E A (2012) Influence of sowing terms on productivity and grain quality of winter wheat in the Forest-Steppe Zone of Kemerovo Region. Achievements of science and technology of the agro industrial complex: a scientific journal Vol 6 No 2 pp 54-56.
Eremecheva I V, Fatykhov I S, & Babaitseva TA (2007) The yield of winter wheat at different terms of sowing. Agrarian Science of Euro-North-East Vol 9 pp 33-37.
GOST 34023-2016. Triticale. Technical conditions. (2017). Interstate standard. – M.: Standard inform.
GOST R 52554-2006. Wheat. Technical conditions. (2008). National standard of the Russian Federation. – M.: Standard inform.
GOST R 53049-2008. Rye. Technical conditions. (2011). National standard of the Russian Federation. – M.: Standard inform. GOST R 54895-2012. (2013).
Dospechov, B.A. (2011). Methods of field experience – M.: ID Alliance, – 352 p.
Gwamba J, Kruger J, and Taylor RN (2019) Influence of grain quality characteristics and basic processing technologies on the mineral and antinutrient contents of iron and zinc biofortified open‐pollinated variety and hybrid‐type pearl millet. International Journal of Food Science & Technology. Vol 55 No 4 pp 1-5.
Ismagilov R R (2010). Baking qualities of winter rye grain and methods of their improvement. Agrarian Bulletin of the Urals Vol 3 No 2 pp 54-55.
Kildiushkin V M, Khomutov I V, Kornev V A, & Prokopets, V G (2010) The influence of weather and climatic factors on the yield of winter wheat. Achievements of science and technology of agriculture Vol 2, No 3 pp 26-28.
Lazarev V I, & Kotelnikov M N (2015) Influence of sowing terms on the yield and grain quality of winter wheat in the conditions of Kursk region. Bulletin of Kursk Agricultural Academy, Vol 5 No 4 pp 52-55.
Leszynska D, & Noworolnik N. (2002) Wplyu terminu i gestosci siewu na przezimowanie iplonowanie kilki odmian jeczmienia ozimego. Ekofizjologiczne aspekty reakcji roslin na dzialanie czynnikow stresowych. Warszawa. Gr. Vol 1 pp 187-191.
Pasynkov AV, Zavalin AA, Pasynkova EN, and Skorobogatykh N A (2017). Change in quality parameters for brewing barley grain at fractionation, Russ. Agric. Sci. Vol 43 No 5 pp 371–375.
Shchennikova I N, Kokina L P (2018) Priority directions and some results of spring barley breeding the Volga-Vyatka region, Izv. Samar. Nauchn. Tsentra Ross. Akad. Nauk, Vol 20 No 2 pp 214–219.
Schönberger H (2000) Weizen noch vor der Gerste säen?. Die landwirtschaftliche Zeitschrift, Vol 9 No 3 pp 64 – 67.
Tikhonova O S, & Fatykhov I S (2013) Influence of sowing terms of winter grain crops on grain quality in the Middle Urals // Bulletin of Izhevsk State Agricultural Academy, Vol 1 No 34 pp 51-53.
Sultanov F S (2014) Terms of sowing of winter triticale in the central agrolandscape regions of Irkutsk region / F.S. Sultanov, O.B. Gabdrahimov. Bulletin IRSAA, Vol 61, No5 pp 25-29.
Torikov V E, & Ptitsyna N V (2017) Quality of winter wheat grain depending on the time of sowing and the level of mineral nutrition. Bulletin of the Altai State Agrarian University, Vol 3 No 149 pp 11-15.
Vasiukov P P, Chuvarleeva G V, & Tsygankov, V I (2008). The influence of some meteorological factors on the yield of winter wheat. Achievements of science and technology of agriculture, Vol 1 No 4 pp 28-29.
Ziuzina E V, Ashaeva, O V, Prikaznova N N (2013) Influence of sowing terms on overwintering of plants and grain yield of winter wheat. Bulletin of Nizhny Novgorod State Agricultural Academy, Vol 3 No 6 pp 223-233.