1Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, FSBEI HE Northern Trans- Ural SAU Tyumen Russia.
2FSBEI HE Northern Trans- Ural SAU Tyumen Russia.
3Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, FSBEI HE Northern Trans- Ural SAU Tyumen Russia.
Article Publishing History
Accepted After Revision:
Microbiocenoses of livestock buildings affect not only animals, reducing their resistance and reactivity, causing diseases of various etiologies, but the staff and nearby residents. The objective of the research was to study the state of livestock breeding, the reasons for the withdrawal of animals, the likelihood of infectious diseases and the composition of microbiocenoses in livestock buildings for various purposes. The studies were conducted at an industrial cattle breeding enterprise (breeding reproducer) in the Northern Trans-Urals (Tyumen region) in 2018-2019. The subject of research was the microbial content of the air in the premises of the pedigree breeding unit with cattle of various technological groups of the Holstein breed. The main reasons for the withdrawal of young cattle are digestive and respiration disorders – 43.21% and 41.60%, respectively. Withdrawal of adult cattle is due to digestive diseases, metabolic disorders, and orthopedic problems and injuries – 25.6%, 25.4%, and 17.2%, respectively. Cattle leukemia and rabies have long been the problems for the Tyumen region. There is a likelihood of particularly dangerous diseases such as anthrax, infectious dermatitis nodosa, tuberculosis, pasteurellosis, brucellosis, and foot and mouth disease. The composition of the microflora of the surveyed livestock buildings has been found to consist of three types of bacteria – Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, and Escherichia coli and three genera of fungi – Mucor, Candida and Aspergillus.
Cattle, Microbiocenoses, Epizootic Situation, Livestock Disposal, Opportunistic Microflora, Livestock Buildings.
Glazunova L. A, Plotnikov I. V, Glazunov Y. V, Gagarin E. M, Yurchenko A. A. Microbiota of Cattle Buildings in the Northern Trans-Urals. Biosc.Biotech.Res.Comm. 2021;14(2).
Glazunova L. A, Plotnikov I. V, Glazunov Y. V, Gagarin E. M, Yurchenko A. A. Microbiota of Cattle Buildings in the Northern Trans-Urals. Biosc.Biotech.Res.Comm. 2021;14(2). Available from: <ahref=”https://bit.ly/3xb4SpR“>https://bit.ly/3xb4SpR</a>
The most important factor in the high quality of work, biological safety, and resulting products is the well-organized veterinary service of farms. An inadequate sanitary condition poses a risk of various diseases that can compromise the rhythm of production, and cause economic losses. An essential factor influencing the development of agricultural enterprises is the quality of air, an integral part of the habitat of most living organisms (Seedorf et al., 1998; Feingold et al., 2012; Masclaux et al., 2013; Mkrtumyan et al., 2018; Alvarado et al., 2019; Kochetova et al., 2020; Dhiman et al., 2021).
Consequently, it is imperative to monitor the condition and control the degree of air pollution in the context of intensification of animal husbandry. Achieving a high level of sanitary condition of the industrial complex is one of the main tasks in animal husbandry. To predict more accurately the development and spread of various diseases, both the qualitative and quantitative composition of the populations of microorganisms, as well as the elements of the external environment that affect the production and processing of livestock products should be considered. To ensure the biological safety of animal husbandry, it is necessary to control the number of pathogenic microorganisms in the air and reduce their number by means of veterinary and sanitary measures (Dungan et al., 2011; McEachran et al., 2015; Sancheza et al., 2016; Morozov et al., 2017; Navajas-Benito et al., 2017 Saleeva et al., 2018; Sintiurev et al., 2020).
Unfortunately, various livestock enterprises underrate the composition of the community of air microorganisms (spores of microscopic fungi, bacteria, saprophytes and various exotoxins), which adversely affects the body of animals and humans (Casey et al., 2016; Borlee et al., 2017; Schaeffer et al., 2017; Borlee et al., 2018; Glazunova et al., 2018; Stolbova et al., 2018; Myrna et al., 2019; Stolbova, 2019; Domatsky et al., 2020; Glazunova et al., 2020; Kochetova et al., 2020; Stolbova, 2020; Bogado et al., 2021).
The factors affecting the quality of livestock products are both the sanitary condition of the premises and the environment, the resistance and reactivity of the animal organism, and the epizootic situation of the agricultural enterprise. Therefore, part of the preventive measures is medical examination of animals and monitoring of infectious diseases of animals at a modern livestock enterprise. Another fact to consider is the people who are constantly exposed to the microflora in the contaminated premises, which in turn can cause sensitization, asthma, atopy, allergic rhinitis, pneumonia, exacerbation of chronic infections and many other pathologies (Hiranuma et al., 2011; Smit et al., 2014; Casey et al., 2015; Borlee et al., 2017; Zomer et al., 2017; Borlee et al., 2018; Freidl et al., 2019; Domatsky et al., 2020; Gagarin et al., 2021). This is another reason for a detailed study of the microbiota of livestock buildings and the development of methods for its correction.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The studies were conducted at an industrial cattle breeding enterprise (breeding reproducer) in the Northern Trans-Urals (Tyumen region) in 2018-2019. The subject of research was the microbial content of the air in the premises of the pedigree breeding unit with cattle of various technological groups of the Holstein breed. Microbiological and bacteriological studies were conducted in an accredited laboratory. The object of the study was various livestock premises: a dairy building, a building for replacement heifers, a maternity pen and a calf barn.
Air in each room was sampled in the morning, when the animals were at relative rest (before feeding, changing bedding, feeding calves and milking cows), and in the daytime, when the listed activities were carried out. Bacterial species were differentiated based on their morphological, tinctorial, cultural, and biochemical properties. Microbiological studies were carried out in compliance with the methodological manual and (Masclaux et., et al 2013; Kochetova et al., 2020). The identification of the isolated cultures was carried out in compliance with the requirements set out in the Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology (1997). For inoculation, diagnostic media were used: enterococcus agar (for streptococci), salt agar (for staphylococci), Saburo (for fungi), Endo’s medium (for E. coli).
Biochemical studies of the isolated cultures were carried out on Api test systems (bioMérieux, France). QMAFAnM – Quantity of Mesophilic Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Microorganisms was determined by pour plate method. The numerical data were processed using BIOSTAT and Microsoft Excel. All manipulations with animals were in compliance with Directive 2010/63/EU of the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union “On the protection of animals used for scientific purposes”. During the studies, we used the generally accepted methods of scientific knowledge, such as interrelation and interdependence; synthesis and analysis; generalization and comparison; observation, measurement and interpretation; and special methods: bacteriological, clinical, biochemical, and hematological. The results were analyzed using the statistical and mathematical methods to ensure the reliability and objectivity of the data.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The second most developing industry in the Tyumen region is the agro-industrial sector; despite the harsh climate, both crop production and animal husbandry are actively developing. Over the past fifteen years, the number of cattle has been stable and varied within 250-265 thousand heads. For many years, the average duration of the use of cows at dairy enterprises has been very low and averaged 2.4-2.6 lactations (Seedorf et al., 1998; Dorozhkin et al., 2018; Sheveleva et al., 2020; Patra and Kar, 2021). This testifies to the colossal economic losses of livestock enterprises and the industry in general. Such a difficult situation with the disposal of animals is characteristic of intensive livestock farming technology, where the concentrate type of feeding is practiced, animals are subject to physical inactivity, technogenic stress and receive less solar insolation. These factors and many others lead to profound metabolic disorders and immunodeficiency states (Sidorova et al., 2020; Sintiurev et al., 2020; Dhiman et al., 2021).
Losses of cattle occur due to the high culling of young animals from the herd. 75.4% of the culled head of cattle are young. The livability of young animals in the Tyumen region was 82.1%. The main reasons for the withdrawal of young cattle are digestive and respiratory diseases – 43.21% and 41.60%, respectively. The number of adult cattle is the most stable; however, there are much more factors leading to culling in this group of animals than in young animals. The main reasons for the withdrawal of adult cattle in the Tyumen region are digestive and metabolic disorders – 25.6% and 25.4%, respectively. Every sixth cow in the region (17.2%) leaves the herd due to orthopedic problems and injuries. Due to respiratory and reproductive diseases, 11.8% and 10.9% of animals, respectively, are withdrawn. The problem of animal poisoning in production remains urgent, which has caused the withdrawal of 9.1% of animals. In addition, the resulting immune deficiency states determine the infectious and invasive susceptibility of animals.
Epizootic situation in the Tyumen region is tense, characterized by constant problem of rabies (including cases in farm animals) and leukemia. Diseases such as anthrax (2016 in the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug), pasteurellosis (2018), infectious nodular dermatitis (2019), brucellosis (2020) are sporadically recorded; tuberculin-positive animals are regularly detected. In addition, there is a high likelihood of FMD, which can be introduced from border areas. Considering the multifactorial nature of infectious diseases, we have studied the microbiota of cattle breeding premises to identify the likelihood of diseases caused by opportunistic microflora. The microbial composition of the studied livestock premises consists of three types of bacteria – Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, and Escherichia coli and three genera of fungi – Mucor, Candida, and Aspergillus (Table 1).
Table 1. Qualitative and quantitative composition of the microbiota of the cattle-breeding premises of the industrial enterprise
|Microorganisms||The total number of microbial colonies in five Petri dishes, sampled from…|
|Maternity pen and calf barns||Dairy building||Replacement calf building|
|Total viable count||535.5±11.23||409.3±8.44||263.1±6.02|
The total number of colonies of microorganisms in five Petri dishes sampled from the maternity pen and calf barns where calves were kept from 0 to 6 months was 904.9 ± 7.42 colonies, in the dairy building with cows aged two years and older the total number of colonies was 954.9 ± 11.07, and the rearing building for replacement calves aged from 6 to 12 months showed the lowest quantitative indicator 537.2 ± 6.89. Staphylococcus aureus dominated in the microbial community, it was found in the air of the housing where dairy cows were kept – 454.0 ± 18.09 colonies, in the maternity pen and in the rearing building – 215.1 ± 9.28 and 126.0 ± 6.11, respectively.
Streptococcus faecalis sub dominated in the air of livestock buildings; the quantitative indicators of the total number of colonies differed slightly in different rooms and amounted to 95.5 ± 2.06, 82.4 ± 3.01, and 76.1 ± 2.62 colonies in the maternity pen, rearing building, and dairy building, respectively. Colonies of Escherichia coli were least represented, while the total number of colonies also had small fluctuations – 17.1 ± 0.41; 9.3 ± 1.33 and 5.3 ± 0.33 colonies, respectively. Among the representatives of fungi, the growth of Aspergillus was most abundant, with the total number of colonies in the air of the rearing building was 49.9 ± 1.12, the maternity pen and the calf barn – 32.5 ± 2.00, and the dairy building – 5.0 ± 0.33 colonies. The number of colonies of fungi Mucor and Candida did not exceed 10 colonies in five Petri dishes.
Considering that livestock buildings must be disinfected only when completely free from animals, which is practically impossible under intensive agriculture, enterprises often neglect the preventive disinfection. This approach to preventive measures does not provide biological safety for both animals and the staff, as well as those living nearby. Therefore, it is necessary to develop acceptable methods of disinfection in the presence of animals.
The main reasons for the withdrawal of young cattle turned out to be digestive and respiratory diseases – 43.21% and 41.60%, respectively. Withdrawal of adult cattle is due to digestive diseases, metabolic disorders, and orthopedic problems and injuries – 25.6%, 25.4%, and 17.2%, respectively. Cattle leukemia and rabies have long been the problems for the Tyumen region. There is a likelihood of particularly dangerous diseases such as anthrax, infectious dermatitis nodosa, tuberculosis, pasteurellosis, brucellosis, and foot and mouth disease. The composition of the microflora of the surveyed livestock buildings has been found to consist of three types of bacteria – Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, and Escherichia coli and three genera of fungi – Mucor, Candida, and Aspergillus.
The study has shown differences in the quantitative indicators of microorganisms based on the purpose of the premises. The constant presence of a significant number of opportunistic microorganisms in livestock buildings increases the likelihood of respiratory and digestive diseases, and undermines the natural resistance of animals. Given that most manipulations with animals are carried out at the same place of their keeping, this casts doubt on the compliance with the rules of asepsis and antisepsis during any surgical procedures, and especially during surgical interventions. In addition, the animal-care staff, being in constant contact with opportunistic flora, is exposed to significant risk of occupational diseases. The data obtained dictate the need to develop a universal method for disinfection of livestock buildings in the presence of animals.
Alvarado, C.S., Gandara, A., Flores, C., Perez, H.R., Green, C.F., Hurd, W.W. and Gibbs, S.G., (2009). Seasonal changes in airborne fungi and bacteria at a dairy cattle concentrated animal feeding operation in the southwest United States. Journal of environmental health, Vol 71(9), pp 40-45.
Borlee, F., Yzermans, C.J., Aalders, B., Rooijackers, J., Krop, E., Maassen, C.B., Schellevis, F., Brunekreef, B., Heederik, D. and Smit, L.A. (2017). Air pollution from livestock farms is associated with airway obstruction in neighboring residents. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, Vol196(9), pp 1152-1161.
Borlée, F., Yzermans, C.J., Krop, E.J., Maassen, C.B., Schellevis, F.G., Heederik, D.J. and Smit, L.A. (2018). Residential proximity to livestock farms is associated with a lower prevalence of atopy. Occupational and environmental medicine, Vol 75(6) pp 453-460.
Bogado Pascottini, O., Spricigo, J.F.W., Van Schyndel, S.J., Mion, B., Rousseau, J., Weese, J.S. and LeBlanc, S.J. (2021). Effects of parity, blood progesterone, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory treatment on the dynamics of the uterine microbiota of healthy postpartum dairy cows. PloS one, Vol 16(2) pp 1-17.
Casey, J. A., Kim, B. F., Larsen, J., Price, L. B., Nachman, K. E. (2015). Industrial Food Animal Production and Community Health. Curr. Environ. Heal. Reports, Vol 2 (3) pp 259−271.
Dhiman, S., Kumar, S., Baliyan, N., Dheeman, S. and Maheshwari, D.K., (2021). Cattle Dung Manure Microbiota as a Substitute for Mineral Nutrients and Growth Management Practices in Plants. Endophytes: Mineral Nutrient Management, Vol 3, pp 77-103.
Domatsky, Vladimir N., Antimirova, Anna A., Glazunova, Larisa A (2020). Spread of Toxoplasmosis in Humans and Animals in the Tyumen Region. Bioscience Biotechnology Research Communications, Vol. 13 pp 2200-2204.
Dorozhkin V. I., Smirnov A. M., Prokopenko A. A., Morozov V. Yu., Lavina S. A. (2018). Test Results the Abaldez Disinfectant in A Poultry Farm. Research journal of pharmaceutical biological and chemical sciences, Vol 9 pp 1117–1121.
Dungan, R. S., Leytem, A. B., Bjorneberg, D. L. (2011). Concentrations of Airborne Endotoxin and Microorganisms at a 10,000-Cow Open Free Stall Dairy. J. Anim. Sci, Vol 89(10) pp 3300−3309.
Feingold, B. J., van Cleef, B. A. G. L., Heck, M. E. O. C., Curriero, F. C., Kluytmans, J. A. J. W., Silbergeld, E. K. (2012). Livestock Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Humans, the Netherlands. Emerging Infect. Dis, 18 (11) pp 1841−1849.
Freidl, G.S., Spruijt, I.T., Borlée, F., Smit, L.A., van Gageldonk-Lafeber, A.B., Heederik, D.J., Yzermans, J., van Dijk, C.E., Maassen, C.B. and van der Hoek, W. (2017). Livestock-associated risk factors for pneumonia in an area of intensive animal farming in the Netherlands. PloS one, Vol 12(3), p.e0174796.
Gagarin, E.M., Glazunova, L.A. and Tsyganok, V.O. (2021). Determination of the level of comorbidity and assessment of the effect of orthopedic pathologies on basic production indicators of cattle. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Vol. 689, No. 1, pp 1-7.
Glazunova, Larisa A., Glazunov, Yuri, V., Ergashev, Abduvahob A. (2020). Seasonal Dynamics of Cattle Thelaziasis in Northern Trans-Ural Region and Pathogenetic Mechanisms of its Clinical Manifestations. Bioscience biotechnology research communications, Vol 13 pp 1854-1859.
Glazunova, Larisa., Aleksandrovna., Glazunov, Yuri Valerievich., Ergashev, Abduvahob Ahrorovich (2018). Ecological-Epizootical Situation on Telasiosis Among Large Cattle in Northern Ural Region. Research journal of pharmaceutical biological and chemical sciences, Vol 9(4) pp 1687-1693.
Hiranuma, N., Brooks, S. D., Gramann, J., Auvermann, B. W. (2011). High Concentrations of Coarse Particles Emitted from a Cattle Feeding Operation. Atmos. Chem. Phys, Vol 11(16) pp 8809−8823.
Kochetova, O.V., Kostarev, S.N., Sidorova, K.A., Ermolina, S.A. and Sereda, T.G., (2020). Morphometric indexes of a wall of arterial vessels of various bodies at animals. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Vol 421(5) pp1-8.
Masclaux, F. G., Sakwinska, O., Charriere, N., Semaani, E., Oppliger, A. (2013). Concentration of Airborne Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and MSSA), Total Bacteria, and Endotoxins in Pig Farms. Ann. Occup. Hyg, Vol 57(5) pp 550−557.
McEachran, A. D.; Blackwell, B. R.; Hanson, J. D.; Wooten, K. J., Mayer, G. D., Cox, S. B., Smith, P. N. (2015). Antibiotics, Bacteria, and Antibiotic Resistance Genes: Aerial Transport from Cattle Feed Yards via Particulate Matter. Environ. Health Perspect, Vol 123 (4), pp 337− 343.
Mkrtumyan A. V., Morozov V. Yu., Butko M. P., Zaharova L. L., Klementyeva S. A. (2018). Studying the Dynamics of Air Pollution in Cattle-Breeding Premises Using Bactericidal Emitters. Research journal of pharmaceutical biological and chemical sciences, Vol pp 1148–1152.
Morozov V. Yu., Kolesnikov R. O., Chernikov A. N., Skorykh L. N., Dorozhkin V.I. (2017). Effect from Aerosol Readjustment Air Environment on Productivity and Biochemical Blood Parameters of Young Sheep. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, Vol 8 (6) pp 509–514.
Myrna M. T. de Rooij et al. (2019). Insights into Livestock-Related Microbial Concentrations in Air at Residential Level in a Livestock Dense Area Environ. Sci. Technol, Vol 53 pp 7746−7758.
Navajas-Benito, E. V., Alonso, C. A., Sanz, S., Olarte, C., Martínez-Olarte, R., Hidalgo-Sanz, S., Somalo, S., Torres, C. (2017). Molecular Characterization of Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli Strains from a Dairy Cattle Farm and Its Surroundings. J. Sci. Food Agric, Vol 97(1) pp 362−365.
Patra, A.K. and Kar, I., (2021). Heat stress on microbiota composition, barrier integrity, and nutrient transport in gut, production performance, and its amelioration in farm animals. Journal of Animal Science and Technology, Vol 63(2), pp 211-247.
Saleeva I. P., Morozov V. Yu., Kolesnikov R. O., Zhuravchik E. V., Chernilov A. N. (2018). Disinfectants Effect on Microbial Cell. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, Vol 9 (4) pp 676–681. Sancheza, H. M., Echeverria, C., Thulsiraj, V., Zimmer-Faust, A., Flores, A., Laitz, M., Healy, G., Mahendra, S., Paulson, S. E., Zhu, Y. (2016). Antibiotic Resistance in Airborne Bacteria Near Conventional and Organic Beef Cattle Farms in California, USA. Water, Air, Soil Pollut, Vol 227(8) pp 1-12.
Schaeffer, J. W., Reynolds, S., Magzamen, S., Vandyke, A., Gottel, N. R., Gilbert, J. A., Owens, S. M., Hampton-Marcell, J. T., Volckens, J. (2017). Size, Composition, and Source Profiles of Inhalable Bioaerosols from Colorado Dairies. Environ. Sci. Technol, Vol 51(11) pp 6430−6440.
Seedorf, J., Hartung, J., Schröder, M., Linkert, K. H., Phillips, V. R., Holden, M. R., Sneath, R. W., Short, J. L., White, R. P., Pedersen, S., et al. (1998). Concentrations and Emissions of Airborne Endotoxins and Microorganisms in Livestock Buildings in Northern Europe. J. Agric. Eng. Res, Vol 70(1) pp 97−109.
Sheveleva, Olga Michailovna., Chasovshchikova, Marina Alexandrovna., Bakharev, Alexey Aleksandrovich et al. (2020). Influence of Paratypical Factors on The Productive Longevity and Lifelong Productivity of Holstein Cows of The Dutch Selection of Different Generations. Amazonia investiga, Vol 9 pp 176-181.
Sidorova, Klavdiya A., Krasnolobova, Ekaterina P., Drabovich, Yuriy A. Natalya A. Tatarnikova (2020). Treatment and Preventive Measures for Hepatopathies of Productive Animals. International scientific and practical conference modern trends in agricultural production in the world economy pp 131-137.
Sintiurev, Otto K., Glazunova, Larisa A., Plakhotnik, Andrei, V. et al. (2020). Methods of Left-Sided Displacement Treatment of The Abomasum in Cows and First Heifers in Tyumen Region. IIOAB Journal Vol 11 pp 1-5.
Smit, L. A. M., Hooiveld, M., van der Sman-de Beer, F., Opstalvan Winden, A. W. J., Beekhuizen, J., Wouters, I. M., Yzermans, C. J., Heederik, D. (2014). Air Pollution from Livestock Farms, and Asthma, Allergic Rhinitis and COPD among Neighbouring Residents. Occup. Environ. Med, Vol 71(2) pp 134−140.
Stolbova, O. A. (2019). Parasitic Activity of Demodex Ticks Among Cattle. Indo american journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Vol 6 pp 13337-13341.
Stolbova, O. A., Glazunov, Yu, V., Skosyrskikh, L. N. (2018). Ticks-Parasites of Dogs in Northern Trans-Urals. Indo American journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Vol 5 pp 1675-1682.
Stolbova, Olga A. (2020). Distribution of Bovine Demodicosis in the Forest-Steppe Zone of the Northern Trans-Urals. HELIX, Vol 10 pp 44-47. Zomer, T. P., Wielders, C. C. H., Veenman, C., Hengeveld, P., van der Hoek, W., de Greeff, S. C., Smit, L. A. M., Heederik, D. J., Yzermans, C. J., Bosch, T., et al. (2017). MRSA in Persons Not Living or Working on a Farm in a Livestock-Dense Area: Prevalence and Risk Factors. J. Antimicrob. Chemother, 72 (3) pp 893−899.