Bioscience Biotechnology Research Communications

An Open Access International Journal

P-ISSN: 0974-6455 E-ISSN: 2321-4007

Bioscience Biotechnology Research Communications

An Open Access International Journal

Abdullah Shamlaan Shbreen

Ministry of Education, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Corresponding author Email: assq.bisha@gmail.com

Article Publishing History

Received: 12/11/2018

Accepted After Revision: 29/12/2018

ABSTRACT:

This study aims to:- Recognize the influence of using Arabic handwriting book in improving handwriting of third primary year students in the Zuhair Kenya School located in Bisha Governorate. The researcher used the quasi experimental method. The study sample consists of (60) students from the school divided into two equal groups: The first one was experimental and was taught by using Arabic handwriting book in improving handwriting of (30) students, and the second one was the control group consisting of (30) students and was taught in the normal way. The researcher tested both groups (both experimental and control) and the results have shown huge differences between the students, who studied the handwriting book especially (experimental group). As this handwriting book has improved and affected students’ handwriting according to a strategy of how to improve handwriting. As a result of the study, researcher suggests a number of recommendations such as:- Studying the influence of using a strategy of improving the skills of Arabic handwriting supported by a computer programs for improving handwriting of first primary year students, and – Studying the influence of an experimental program based on using the strategy of cooperative learning in improving Arabic handwriting for primary school students.

KEYWORDS:

Handwriting Book- Primary School-Educational Department Of Bisha Governorate-Ministry Of Education- Teaching Method – Arabic Handwriting

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Shbreen A. S. Influence of Using Arabic Handwriting Books in Improving Handwriting of Third Primary Year Students in the Department of Education of Bisha Governorate, Saudi Arabia. Biosc.Biotech.Res.Comm. VOL 12 NO1 (Spl Issue February) 2019.


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Shbreen A. S. Influence of Using Arabic Handwriting Books in Improving Handwriting of Third Primary Year Students in the Department of Education of Bisha Governorate, Saudi Arabia. Biosc.Biotech.Res.Comm. VOL 12 NO1 (Spl Issue February) 2019. Available from: https://bit.ly/2NxdWnd


Introduction

Arabic language based on four major arts

Art of speech, listening, reading and writing. These arts cannot be separated from each other in any way as each one highly affects the other. Besides, there is a firm integration between these four arts, so speaking doesn’t come without listening, writing cannot be without reading, reading can’t be without listening, nor speaking without listening. These four arts are related to each other with an integral and interactive system. Arabic handwriting is an original art by which the Islamic cultural inheritance and history has been written and kept. It has been evolved as a way of communication, and moving thoughts. It became more artistic and full of figures of speeches which reflect Islamic Arab culture and identity.

Based on that, art of writing (handwriting skill) is an important science and art in the same time, as the learner starts to learn reading and writing at first, then other skills. The importance of Arabic handwriting expressed as an effective instrument for teaching in general and teaching Arabic language in particular. However, handwriting is also considered one of the most major skills in teaching Arabic language and an instrument for students in all school subjects and works that require writing.

The researcher believes that we shall take into our consideration the specialized teacher of Arabic language and who have a clear handwriting, which may be able to solve this problem with this new method. As a specialized teacher, he takes upon his shoulders clarifying at least Naskh script in an applicable and simple way by using the handwriting book and guiding students to improve and decorate handwriting.

Literature Review

Study No. [1] was aimed at:

*Identifying the influence of using writing processes of first primary year students’ handwritings and their attitudes towards hand writing. The study sample consisted of (21) students with various levels of handwriting, as it included students with high, medium and low level. However, students have been tested for identifying their writing level. They also had interviews to ask why they write? After that, they were trained in full school year for writing by using writing processes introduction. Moreover, they have been tested and findings have shown the efficiency of writing processes in improving writing skills and spelling for study respondents, in addition to increasing their desire towards writing
positively.

Study No. [2] was aimed at

*Identifying the efficiency of teaching Arabic handwriting curriculum (105 Arab) in developing thehandwritingperformance for students of Teacher Training College in Mecca.

The Researcher used the performance test for recognizing the efficiency of teaching Arabic handwriting curriculum (105 Arab). Researcher has also chosen the study sample including (130) students from Teacher Training College in Mecca, who registered in Arabic handwriting methodology (105 Arab) in both branches: literary and science.

Significant study findings

The experimental change proved its efficiency in improving and developing the Arabic handwriting skills for science-branch students more than the literary one.

Study No. [3] was aimed at

*Recognizing the efficiency of developing handwriting skills program;* Identifying students’ attention and their behaviors at school hall.Study sample consisted of (13) children who have been chosen randomly from Australian civilized students and have been divided into two groups: experimental and control. The test has been applied after and before as an instrument of the
study.

Significant study findings

Improving the performance in the experimental group compared to the control group of developing handwriting skills, students’ attention and their behaviors in school hall.

Study No. [4] was aimed at

Surveying opinions of primary school teachers about their educational practices in the classroom. Most of the participating teachers (72%) took an eclectic approach to writing instruction, combining elements from the 2 most common methods for teaching writing: process writing and skills instruction. A random sample of primary grade teachers (N = 178; 97% female) from across the United States was surveyed about their classroom instructional practices in writing.

Significant study findings

Although 90% of the teachers reported using most of the writing instructional practices that were included in the survey, there was considerable variability between teachers in how often they used specific practices.

The time, which students spend at school is insufficient for learning writing in this stage; Provide better balance between time spent writing, learning writing strategies, and teaching writing skills;

Place more emphasis on fostering students’ motivation for writing;

Develop stronger connections for writing between home and school; make computers a more integral part of the writing program; and Improve professional development for writing instruction in teacher education programs.

Study No. [5] was aimed at

*Identifying efficiency of the proposed program for developing Arabic handwriting skills and methods and its relation to grasping the written scripts by six primary school students.

Study sample consisted of (157) students, (79) male student and (78) female student.

Significant Findings of the Study

* Identifying the most important skills and methods of Arabic handwriting for six primary school students;

* Recognizing the reality of Arabic handwriting skills for male and female students; and

* There are no statistically significant differences between the performance of male and female students in Arabic handwriting skills and methods, and grasping the written script.

Study No. [6] was aimed at

*Identifying the position of Arabic handwriting in Islamic civilization. However, the problem lied in the special position of Arabic handwriting in Muslim life; was it a coincidental, relating to Islamic religion or there is different reason? To achieve that, we used the historic and analytical descriptive method using primary and secondary observation and internet.

Significant study findings

Arabic handwriting has been at the forefront in Islamic civilized arts and became sacred due to its relation to the Holy Quran and harmonizing with Islamic civilization features.

Study Problem

The researcher found that there are students, who don’t write properly according to the rules of handwriting subject. He found that through his work as a teacher for third primary year at Zuhair Kenya primary school in Bisha governorate and through observing the handwriting of second primary year students. The handwriting subject along with all arts were combined in one subject, as students in this age needs to be taught the correct handwriting rules. This study tries to answer the following question:

“What is the influence of using Arabic handwriting books in improving handwriting of third primary year students in the Zuhair Kenya primary school in Bisha governorate?” in addition to verifying the validity of hypotheses as follows:

There are statistically significant differences at (0.05) level between the average degrees of experimental and control groups in the post measurement students” handwriting”.

Study Methodology

According to the nature of this study, the researcher used the quasi-experimental methodology for identifying the influence of using Arabic handwriting book in improving handwriting of third primary year students in Bisha governorate. Study community consists of (1165) of all third primary year students, second semester in Bisha governorate in 1437-1438 H. By using random choosing, the Zuhair Kenya primary school has been selected.

Study sample consists of two groups; the first group is experimental which is taught by using an Arabic handwriting book of (30) students, and the second group is control which is taught by using the normal way of (30) students. Therefore, the total amount of study sample is (60) students. Study sample includes (20) students from the Zuhair Kenya primary school as a survey sample for verifying the accuracy and credibility of the study instrument. The study includes two instruments; attainment test of students’ handwriting and Arabic handwriting book for improving student handwriting. Finally, researcher makes sure of the validity and credibility of the measurement instrument.

Numerical Findings

The study aims to answer the study question; “What is the influence of using Arabic handwriting books in improving handwriting of third primary year students in the Zuhair Kenya primary school in Bisha governorate?” it also aims to test the initial hypothesis of; “There are statistically significant differences at (0.05) level between the average degrees of experimental and control groups in the post measurement students”.

T.test has been applied to the independent samples for calculating arithmetic means and Standard deviations of the test related to ranking students’ handwriting. Then, T.test values and its statistical significances between the average degrees of research groups in their pre applicable for the test. Data has been processed through statistic programs packages called (SPSS). 

The related results were as follows:

Table No. (1), shows T.test values and statistical significances levels of the two groups individuals (experimental and control groups) of the test of students handwriting before applying Arabic language book.

Table 1: Shows that
Variable Control Group N = 20 Experimental Group N = 20 (T) Values Significance Level
M A M A
Test of students handwriting 21.27 4.13 21.30 4.29 -0.019 0.98
* There is no statistical significance differences at (0.05) level between the average degrees of experimental and control groups of pre measurement of students’ handwriting before using the proposed Arabic handwriting book, which indicates that there is an equivalence between both research groups (both experimental and control groups) before applying the proposed Arabic handwriting book.

Figure No. (1) Shows the difference between the average degrees of students of both experimental and control groups regarding testing students’ handwritings before using proposed Arabic handwriting book program.

Figure 1. The difference between the average degrees of students from (both experimental and control groups) of testing students’ handwriting before applying proposed Arabic handwriting book. Figure 1: The difference between the average degrees of students from (both experimental and control groups) of testing students’ handwriting before applying proposed Arabic handwriting book

(T) Values and its statistical significances were calculated between the average degrees of the two study groups in the post application of the test.

Significant study findings are as follows

Table No. (2); (T) values and statistical significances levels of group individuals (both experimental and control) of the test regarding students’ handwriting before applying the Arabic language book.

In light of these results concluded by the researcher, the following study hypothesis must be accepted:

“There is a statistical significance differences at (0.05) level between the averages degrees of the experimental and control groups in the post measurement of students’ handwriting”.

Figure No. (2) shows The difference between the average degrees of (both the experimental and control groups) of the test related to students’ handwritings after applying the Arabic handwriting book program.

Figure 2. The difference between the average degrees of (both the experimental and control groups) of the test related to students’ handwritings after applying the Arabic handwriting book program Figure 2: The difference between the average degrees of (both the experimental and control groups) of the test related to students’ handwritings after applying the Arabic handwriting book program


Practical significance (
ç) could be noticed from the following equation

ç= T2
T2 + FD

Table No. (3) shows the gain percentage of the representational activity and the modified gain percentage progress and practical significance (ç) and (ç2) for individual of experimental group in the pre and post measurement, of the test of students handwritings.

Table 2: Shows that
Variable Control Group

N = 20

Experimental Group N = 20 (T) Values Significance Level
M A M A
Test of students handwriting 22.95 4.07 26.90 2.32 -3.76 0.01
* There are statistical significance differences between the averages of experimental and control groups of the test related to students’ handwritings. These differences attributed to the favor of the experimental group. (T) Value of test reached (-3.76), according to its statistical significances value at (0.01).

* This means that students of experimental group who studied Arabic handwriting program were better than students of control group, who studied according to the normal way.


After analyzing table No. (3) results, we concluded

  1. (ç2) value is 0.88, which means that, the total variance percentage of sample individuals degrees, which are attributed to the influence of Arabic handwriting book is 88%. This is a very large amount of variance explained by Arabic handwriting book.
  2. Practical significance value (ç) is 0.94, which means that, Arabic handwriting book highly affected students’ handwriting with a percentage of 94%. All these percentages refer to the clear influence of Arabic handwriting book.

Researcher explains how Arabic handwriting book has an influence on students’ handwriting, as this book is based on assigning the students to write from three lines to six lines maximum. The skill is based on (30) degree divided into three themes as follows:

Table 3: the gain percentage of the representational activity and the modified gain percentage progress and practical significance (ç) and (ç2) for individual of experimental group in the pre and post measurement, of the test of students handwritings.
Changing Experimental group T Significance Level ç ç2
Pre Post
M A M A
Test of students handwriting 21.30 4.29 26.90 2.32 -12.03 0 0.94 0.88

Writing on the central line, appropriate height of the character and enough spaces between characters and words with 10 degrees for each one of them. This way improved handwriting according to a strategy based on understanding how to improve handwriting.

Findings, Recommendations and Suggestions Summary

The study concluded that there are statistical significance differences between average degrees of experimental and control groups of the test of students’ handwriting. These differences attributed to the favor of the experimental group, while (T) value of test reached (-3.76), which is a statistical significance value at (0.01).

*This means that students of experimental group who studied Arabic handwriting program were better than students of control group, who studied according to the normal way.

In light of these results concluded by the researcher, the following study hypothesis must be accepted:

“There is a statistical significance differences at (0.05) level between the averages degrees of the experimental and control groups in the post measurement of students’ handwriting”.

The study recommends, upon its findings, to raise awareness of those responsible persons for the educational process to consider using the Arabic handwriting book in improving handwriting skills. The study also recommends including events and procedures in using Arabic handwriting book with variant levels and training teacher on using development strategy of Arabic handwriting skills.

References

  1. Storholt, S. (2001). Implementing a process approach to writing with first grade students. MA, Volume 40-02 of Dissertation Abstracts International.
  2. Attar, Abdullah. (2004). The Effect of Teaching Arabic handwriting curriculum (105 Arabs) in developing handwriting Performance of the Students of the Teacher Training College in Makkah Al Mukarramah. Master Thesis, Umm Al Qura University.
  3. Jessica MeGarrigle, Alison Nelson, A. (2006). Evaluating a school skills program me for Australian indigenous children: Apilot study. University of Queensland, Australia, Occupational therapy international 2006, 13(1).
  4. Graham and Cutler. (2008). Primary Grade Writing Instruction: A National Survey. journal of Educational Psychology Copyright 2008 by the American Psychological Association. 4(100), 907–919.
  5. Sheikh Eid, Ibrahim Odeh. (2009). The effectiveness of a proposed program in the development of Arabic handwriting and its literature and relation to the understanding of the handwriting of the sixth primary years students of the basic education in Palestine, unpublished PhD thesis, League of Arab States, Institute of Arab Research and Studies.
  6. Mohammed, Younis Abdel Rahman. (2009). Arabic handwriting in Islamic civilization. Unpublished PhD thesis, Faculty of Fine and Applied Arts, Sudan University of Science and Technology.