Bioscience Biotechnology Research Communications

An Open Access International Journal

P-ISSN: 0974-6455 E-ISSN: 2321-4007

Bioscience Biotechnology Research Communications

An Open Access International Journal

Amrutha Gopan1*, Syamlal Lalappan2, Tincy Varghese2, Manas Kumar Maiti2, Rohan Maria Peter3

1Centurion University of Technology and Management Parlakhemundi, India

2Central Institute of Fisheries Education Mumbai, India

3Fishery Survey of India, Chennai, India

Corresponding author email:


Article Publishing History

Received: 14/10/2020

Accepted After Revision: 29/12/2021


Limited supply and high demand of fish meal made it imperative to use plant derived feed ingredients such as seeds of legumes (lupin and peas), oil seed cakes (soy bean, cottonseed, and rape seed), cereals (corn, rice and wheat), meal of protein rich leaves, concentrates and isolate of non-edible oil seeds (jatropha, castor, karanj and neem) as a fish feed ingredients. However, the major challenge in utilising the protein rich plant derived ingredients as fish feed is the presence of anti-nutritional factors. The most widely distributed anti-nutritional factors among potential alternatives are protease inhibitors, phytic acid, saponin, tannin, cyanide, oxalate, gossypol, non-starch polysaccharides, phytoestrogens, mimosine. We need to remove or ameliorate the effects of these anti-nutritional factors for the incorporation of the plant ingredients. There exists a species-specific tolerance limit to each anti-nutrients which needs to consider before determining their amelioration techniques. The effects of these anti-nutrients along with the techniques employed to remove them have been discussed in this article.


Anti-Nutritional Factors; Amelioration Strategies; Fish; Plant Ingredients

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