1Centurion University of Technology and Management Parlakhemundi, India
2Central Institute of Fisheries Education Mumbai, India
3Fishery Survey of India, Chennai, India
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Article Publishing History
Accepted After Revision: 29/12/2021
Limited supply and high demand of fish meal made it imperative to use plant derived feed ingredients such as seeds of legumes (lupin and peas), oil seed cakes (soy bean, cottonseed, and rape seed), cereals (corn, rice and wheat), meal of protein rich leaves, concentrates and isolate of non-edible oil seeds (jatropha, castor, karanj and neem) as a fish feed ingredients. However, the major challenge in utilising the protein rich plant derived ingredients as fish feed is the presence of anti-nutritional factors. The most widely distributed anti-nutritional factors among potential alternatives are protease inhibitors, phytic acid, saponin, tannin, cyanide, oxalate, gossypol, non-starch polysaccharides, phytoestrogens, mimosine. We need to remove or ameliorate the effects of these anti-nutritional factors for the incorporation of the plant ingredients. There exists a species-specific tolerance limit to each anti-nutrients which needs to consider before determining their amelioration techniques. The effects of these anti-nutrients along with the techniques employed to remove them have been discussed in this article.
Anti-Nutritional Factors; Amelioration Strategies; Fish; Plant Ingredients