Biosci. Biotech. Res. Comm. 8(2): 193-196 (2015)

Evaluation on quality parameters and economic feasibility of different banana Musa spp cultivars under Assamese Conditions

Sibani Gogoi1*, Bipin Khangia2, Kartik Baruah3

Department of Horticulture, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam-785013


A !eld experiment involving nine banana cultivars was carried out at Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat during 2012-2013. The banana cultivars included in the experiment were Karpurachakkarakeli, Champa, Rasthali, Barjahaji, Jahaji, Kachkal, Malbhog, Gandevi and Rajapuri. The experimental design was a randomised block design (RBD) with three replications. The quality parameters like Total soluble solid (TSS), reducing sugar, non reducing sugar, total sugar, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, sugar-acid ratio and pulp-peel ratio as well as the economics of different cultivars were studied. The quality parameters showed signi!cant variation among the cultivars. Evaluation of com- parative economics of cultivation revealed that the highest bene!t cost ratio of 4.40 was obtained in ‘Jahaji’ followed by ‘Barjahaji’ (4.14).



Banana is the best known tropical fruit crop of the world as well as India. Banana and plantain are reported to be the fourth most important global commodity after rice, wheat and milk in terms of gross value of production and has great socio-economic signi!cance. It is a won- der berry forming staple food of millions of people and source of revenue for countries throughout the tropical


*Corresponding Author: sibanigogoi237@gmail.com Received 1st December, 2015

Accepted after revision 10th December, 2015 BBRC Print ISSN: 0974-6455

Online ISSN: 2321-4007 NAAS Journal Score : 3.48

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and subtropical regions of the world. India is the largest producer of banana in the world with a production of 29724.6 thousand MT from an area of 802.6thousand hectares with a productivity of 37 MT/ha (Annon, 2014). India is the home for bananas and plantains and is being grown even before the Vedic times. It is referred to as ‘Kalpatharu’(Plant of Virtue) due to its multifaceted uses. The Assam-Burma-Thailand are supposed to be not only the centre of origin but also they are the main centres


Sibani Gogoi, Bipin Khangia and Kartik Baruah

of diversity. In India the major banana growing states are Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Assam. Assam ranks sixth in area and ninth in production, producing 857.72 thousand MT of banana annually from an area of 50.81 thousand hectares with a productivity of 16.9 MT/ha (Annon, 2014).

Cultivated banana belongs to section Eumusa and were formed by interspeci!c crosses involving two dip- loid ancestor species M. acuminata (genome AA) and M. balbisiana (genome BB) originated in South East Asia stretching from India to Malaysia (Stover and Sim- monds,1987). Botanically, banana is a monocotyledo- nous, monoecious, monocarpic, mesophytic, perennial plant belonging to the family Musaceae. Unlike most other fruits, banana is a herbaceous, giant, perennial herb that consists of a rhizome and a pseudostem (Robinson, 1996). Banana is one of the biggest single trade items in international fruit trade. It is considered as a wholesome fruit as it provides a more balanced diet containing suf- !cient amount of carbohydrates and most nourishing of all the fruits which contains nearly all the essential nutrients including minerals, vitamins and has several medicinal properties. In many parts of India including Assam both plant and fruits are used extensively in all auspicious occasions such as wedding, festivals and also use for worship. Apart from fresh consumption as des- sert fruit, some types are also used for culinary purpose.

Assam is naturally blessed with suitable agro-edapho climatic conditions for growing banana and a large numbers of banana cultivars are grown in almost all the agro climatic zones of Assam. The banana cultivars differ among themselves with respect to the quality parameters as well as the possible economic return after obtaining the expected yield from these cultivars. However, infor- mation on the fruit quality and economic returns of the commercial cultivars are scanty and not well docu- mented. Thus, it seems to be of utmost importance to carry out a research work pertaining to the evaluation of the quality attributes and possible threshold economic return obtainable from growing these cultivars. Keep- ing in view, the above consideration, the present experi- ment was conducted to study the quality parameters and the economic feasibility of nine promising cultivars of banana under Assam condition.


The experiment was conducted in the experimental !eld, Department of Horticulture, Assam Agricultural Univer- sity, Jorhat with nine cultivars viz., Karpurachakkarakeli (AAB), Champa (AAB), Rasthali (AAB), Barjahaji (AAA), Jahaji (AAA), Kachkal (ABB), Malbhog (AAB), Gandevi

(AAA)and Rajapuri (AAB). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replica- tions. Sword suckers with well developed rhizome were planted at a spacing 1.8 m x 1.8 m. The recommended cultural practices were adopted to raise a successful crop.

Fruit quality analysis was performed by taking a fruit sample from the second hand. Total soluble solid (TSS) was determined by the help of a hand refractometer. Titrable acidity, reducing sugar, total sugar and non- reducing sugar were determined adopting the standard methods of A.O.A.C. (1975). Sugar-acid ratio was calcu- lated by dividing the mean of total sugar by the mean of titrable acidity. Pulp-peel ratio was calculated by divid- ing the mean pulp weight by the mean of peel weight.

The expenditure both recurring and non-recurring, required for the crop during cropping period were com- puted based on the investment of charges of !eld prepa- ration, planting materials, input, plant protection and relevant intercultural operations etc. Gross return was calculated by multiplying the marketable yield with that of sale price. Net return was calculated by subtracting gross expenditure from the gross return on per hectare basis. Bene!t-cost ratio was computed from the value of net return and gross expenditure.

The data obtained from different observations dur- ing !eld experimentation and laboratory determination were subjected to the analysis of variance. Signi!cance and non-signi!cance of the variance due to treatment effects was determined by calculating ‘F’ values as described by Panse and Sukhatme (1985).


The cultivars exhibited signi!cant effect on the quality of fruit (Table1). Refractometer reading gave the highest TSS value in ‘Malbhog’ (22.13°B) while the lowest value was recorded in ‘Gandevi’ (17.40°B). Titrable acidity gives a measure of the amount of acid present. Acids make an important contribution to the post-harvest quality of the fruit as taste is mainly a balance between the sugar and acid contents. Among the cultivars, titrable acidity was found statistically signi!cant and the highest value was recorded in ‘Rasthali’ (0.59%) while the lowest was recorded in ‘Jahaji’ (0.28%). Decreasing titrable acidity could be attributed to the dilution effect on acidity and also due to better conversion of acids into sugar. Similar results were found by Singh and Uma (1996) in banana. In terms of ascorbic acid ‘Barjahaji’ recorded the highest value (5.11 mg/100g) whereas lowest value was recorded in ‘Rajapuri’ (2.55 mg/100g) which was statistically at par with ‘Gandevi’ (2.61 mg/100g) and ‘Kachkal’ (2.78 mg/100g). The increase in ascorbic acid content of fruit may be due to perpetual synthesis of glucose-6-phosphate

Sibani Gogoi, Bipin Khangia and Kartik Baruah

Table 1: Quality parameters of different banana cultivars

throughout the growth and development of fruits which is thought to be the precursor of Vitamin C as reported by Singh et al. (1986) in mango. Highest value of reduc- ing sugar was recorded in ‘Kachkal’ (12.67%) while the lowest value was recorded in ‘Jahaji’ (9.05%). The increase might be due to more conversion of starch into sugar whereas lower reducing sugar in a cultivar may be due to low conversion of sucrose from starch. In terms of total sugar ‘Barjahaji’ recorded the highest value (20.16%) whereas lowest value was recorded in ‘Karpurachakkarakeli’ (17.33%) which was at par sta- tistically with ‘Gandevi’ (17.40%). Non reducing sugar was recorded highest in ‘Barjahaji’ (10.29%) while the lowest value was recorded in ‘Karpurachakkarakeli’ (6.00%). The increase in sugar content was also due

to the degradation of polysaccharides into monosac- charides. The present !ndings was in agreement with the !ndings of Natesh et al. (1993) in banana. Highest sugar - acid ratio was recorded in ‘Jahaji’ (68.14) while the lowest was recorded in ‘Rasthali’ (30.84) which was at par with ‘Malbhog’ (33.08). This might be due to higher concentration of total sugar and comparatively lower amount of titrable acidity in the fruits. On the other hand ‘Rasthali’ recorded the lowest sugar - acid ratio which might be due to higher acid and lower total sugar content in the fruits. The highest value of pulp - peel ratio was found in ‘Champa’ (4.26) and the lowest recorded in ‘Jahaji’ (2.41) which was at par with ‘Bar- jahaji’ (2.42), ‘Gandevi’ (2.52), ‘Rajapuri’ (2.59), ‘Karpu- rachakkarakeli’ (2.66) and ‘Kachkal’ (2.69).

Table 2: Economics of cultivation (per ha)

*market price of banana fruits was considered as: Rs 15000/ton for Karpurachakkarakeli and Champa Rs 30000/ton for Rasthali and Malbhog

Rs 20000/ton for Barjahaji, Jahaji, Kachkal, Gandevi and Rajapuri

Sibani Gogoi, Bipin Khangia and Kartik Baruah

The economics of cultivation of different cultivars are presented in Table 2. Economics is the most impor- tant single factor which decides the adoption of any treatment by the horticulturist. The bene!t cost ratio

(B:C Ratio) of treatments is another most important factor that determines its usefulness and acceptance by a grower. In the experiment cost of cultivation was worked out taking into account preparatory cultivation, planting materials, manures and fertilizers, intercultural operations, plant protection and manual labour charges. Comparative economics of different cultivars of banana revealed that there was profound difference in the ben- e!t–cost ratio. It was also found that different cultivars fetch different prices in the market and the highest ben- e!t-cost ratio was recorded in ‘Jahaji’(4.40) followed by ‘Barjahaji’ (4.14) while the lowest was observed ‘Karpu- rachakkarakeli’(1.22).

It was revealed from the experiment that the culti- vars viz. Jahaji and Barjahaji exhibited higher and stable concentration of the Total soluble solids (TSS), titrable acidity, reducing sugar content, vitamin C etc. which render them as a suitable choice both for the growers and consumers. The cultivars were also subjected to economic analysis and as evident from the bene!t cost ratio, it can be said that the cultivars Jahaji and Bar-

jahaji are economically more feasible for growers and could fetch more price in the competing market.


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