Biosci. Biotech. Res. Comm. 8(2):
Amelioration of heat stress in wheat, Triticum aestivum by PGPR (Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain 2CpS1)
Hariom Meena, Md. Afjal Ahmed* and Pravin Prakash
Department of Plant Physiology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, BHU, Varanasi- 221005
An experiment was conducted to study the effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on the morpho- physiological and biochemical parameter in a wheat cultivar
KEY WORDS: PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA, HIGH TEMPERATURE, WHEAT.
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), an important staple food crop, is the main source of food and energy with a large number of end use products like chapathi, bread, bis- cuits, pasta etc. High temperature is a common stress for plants, restricting growth and productivity in many regions. Wheat is sensitive to high temperature (both early and late) but magnitude of damage will depend on background ambient temperature, stage of development and variety, (Awad et al.2007 and Farooq et al. 2011, Kasim et al., 2013 and Chakrawarty et al., 2013).
*Corresponding Author: email@example.com Received 1st November, 2015
Accepted after revision 5th December, 2015 BBRC Print ISSN:
©A Society of Science and Nature Publication, 2015. All rights reserved.
Online Contents Available at: http//www.bbrc.in/
High growing temperature reduces the duration of all developmental stages in wheat. Rhizobacteria, when introduced by plant inoculation in a soil containing competitive micro"ora, exert a bene!cial effect on plant growth and are termed plant growth promoting rhizo- bacteria (PGPR) . PGPR are naturally occurring soil bac- teria that aggressively colonize plant roots and bene!t plants by providing growth promotion. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (strain 2CpS1), a
Meena, Ahmed and Prakash
experiment to observe its effectiveness on growth pro- motion of wheat under high temperature condition in vitro, (Balla et al. 2008 and Sikder et al. 2010).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A pot experiment was conducted in the Net house of Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University,Varanasi. Disease free and healthy seeds of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar
The soil to be used for pot !lling was collected from the experimental farm and was cleaned, dried, powdered and mixed thoroughly. Soil, sand and FYM were mixed in the ratio of 1:3:1 and then sterilized by using 4% for- maldehyde. The pots (20 × 20 cm), after being sterilized by 70% methanol, were subjected to
equal number of pots sown with non treated seeds were transferred to a plant growth chamber having 30°C/ 25°C day/ night temperatures. The relative humidity was maintained at 90% with 12 hours of light and dark peri- ods. The control pots were maintained in the net house of Department of Plant Physiology. Observations on different morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters were recorded at 24 days after temperature treatment imposition. Each pot containing four plants were taken as one replication for determination of mor- phological and growth parameters. Samples for physi- ological parameters and chlorophyll content were col- lected between 9.00 to 10.00 AM. from fully expanded leaf and was brought to the laboratory in ice buckets.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Seed treatment with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (strain 2CpS1) resulted in an overall increase in the morpho- logical, physiological and biochemical parameters in wheat plant during elevated temperature as well as nor- mal temperature condition as indicated in Table 1. The parameters such as plant height, root length, leaf area, total dry matter, relative water content and chlorophyll content were observed to have the maximum value for the treatment T2 [Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2CpS1) treatment + No elevated temperature treatment] and the least value was observed for T3 [No Pseudomonas aeru- ginosa (2CpS1) treatment + elevated temperature treat- ment], at 24 days after temperature treatment. Pseu- domonas aeruginosa, strain 2CpS1 has been found to show
Table 1: Effect of PGPR, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2CpS1) on morphological and growth parameters in wheat under normal and elevated temperature, 16 days after treatment imposition
T1 : Control [No PGPR treatment + optimal temperature]; T2 : PGPR treatment + optimal temperature; T3 : No PGPR treatment
+elevated temperature ; T4 : PGPR treatment + elevated temperature.Values in parentheses indicate percent increase due to PGPR application, both under optimal and elevated temperature conditions.
Meena, Ahmed and Prakash
Table 2: Effect of PGPR, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2CpS1) on
T1 : Control [No PGPR treatment + optimal temperature]; T2 : PGPR treatment + optimal temperature; T3 : No PGPR
treatment + elevated temperature ; T4 : PGPR treatment + elevated temperature.Values in parentheses indicate percent increase (+) and decrease
lization of phosphorus and phytohormone production,( Tahir et al.2009).
The value for cell membrane injury was recorded to be the maximum for T3 [No Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2CpS1) treatment + elevated temperature treatment] and minimum for T2 [Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2CpS1) treatment + no elevated temperature treatment] ,while the treatments T4 [Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2CpS1)
+elevated temperature treatment] was found to have reduced damage to its membrane, as there is the amel- iorative effect of PGPR treatment on the elevated tem- perature stress, ( Mator et al. 2005, Gupta et al. 2006).
The treatment T3 [No Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2CpS1) treatment + elevated temperature treatment] was recorded to have the minimum value for yield and yield related attributes while the maximum value was observed for the treatment T2 [Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2CpS1) treatment + No elevated temperature treatment] and this was followed by T4 and T1.
Our observations in Table 1 and Table 2 indicate that percent increase in morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa treatment had better effect under stress (elevated tem- perature treatment) conditions as compared to normal condition. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, strain 2CpS1 has been reported to show ACC deaminase activity and has been found to survive and grow well at optimum tem- perature of 37°C, and it is able to grow at temperatures as high as 42°C ( Bano, 2008).
Thus, it affects morphological, physiological, bio- chemical parameters in wheat under both control and elevated temperature situation. The present study sug- gests that Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain 2CpS1 seed treatment can ameliorate the deleterious effects of tem- perature stress by increasing plant height, root length, leaf area, chlorophyll content, relative water content and decreasing cell membrane injury in wheat plant.
(Bhatti et al. 2005) There is amelioration of elevated temperature stress in wheat on the basis of which it can be concluded that the application of isolated, character- ized and tested stress tolerant PGPR strains can enhance stress tolerance in crop plants and could be used as a feasible strategy for improving crop production under the conditions of high temperature stress.
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