Determination of total a atoxin in rice consumption in
Yasuj, Iran
Ali Mousavizadeh
, Amir Peikar
, Ahmad Hoseinian
, Emambakhsh Ghaydie
Azizollah Pourmahmoudi
PhD in Epidemiology, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences
Yasuj, Iran
Laboratory Manager Of Food And Drug Institute Attached To Yasuj University Of Medical Science, Iran
Expert Laboratory Of Food And Drug Institute Attached To Yasuj University Of Medical Science, Iran
Experimental Expert of Food And Drug Institute Attached To Yasuj University Of Medical Science, Iran
Ph.D – Nutrition, Determinants of Nutrition,School of Health, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran
A atoxins are the secondary metabolitesof Aspergillus  avus and Aspergillus parasiticus which are often produced
by molds. The consumption of food contaminated with a atoxin poison, which is associated with many humans and
A atoxicosis, in some cases can lead to death.Nowadays, rice is the foodstuff for half of theworld’spopulation. Rice is
exposed to fungal and a atoxin contaminations like other cereal crops. This study aimed toinvestigate and compare
the amount of a atoxin and the level of toxin in rice samples in Yasuj. In this study, 45rice samples collected from
Yasuj supermarketsand the amount of a atoxin contamination were tested by Elisa. The results showed that total
a atoxincontamination in all samples was lower than the national standard in Iran. The average amount of total
a atoxin in types such as Gerdeh, Champa, Shamim and Fajr, is6.53- 6.14- 4.54and 6.12 ng /g, respectively. Compar-
ing the results of this study and other studies, it can be concluded that rice examined in this study is more desirable.
*Corresponding Author:
Received 27
Dec, 2016
Accepted after revision 2
March, 2017
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Biosci. Biotech. Res. Comm. Special Issue No 1:195-198 (2017)
Ali Mousavizadeh et al.
Rice is one of the most important crops. Grain dark is
the staple food for half of the world’s population (Payan,
2011). Rice cultivation has existed in Iran since the
Achaemenid (Khodabande, 2010). It is cultivated widely
in certain areas of the world such as China, India, Japan,
Uruguay and parts of South Africa (Payan, 2011). Many
agricultural products from the cultivation to consumption
are prone to contaminate with fungi. If the fungipollu-
tion-causing strains of toxin,it may produce mycotoxin
in some stage of its growth as a secondary metabolite.
(Reza, Tahereh, Alireza, & bahar, 2011) Liu et al, 2015).
Despite numerous studies during the  rst half of the
last century, only in the 1960s, itwas found that metabo-
lites of fungi are responsible for the illness and death
of livestock. Currently, it is well established that toxic
mold metabolites are responsible for many epidemics in
human and animal population (Reza, Tahereh, Alireza,
& bahar, 2011). Mycotoxins are a natural group of toxic
compounds produced by several species of fungi. These
compounds have different chemical structuresandlow
molecular weight that are found in a large number of
agricultural products and food. In general, many types
of grains, oilseeds, nuts and dried fruit are prone to fun-
gal pollution(Majid, et al., 2008). The most important
mycotoxins involve a atoxins, patulin, ochratoxin A
and zearalenone (Abdel-Wahhab & Kholif, 2010).
A atoxins are mycotoxins produced by the Aspergil-
lus species and some species of Penicillium and Asper-
gillus  avus (FinkGrernmels, 1999). Different types of
a atoxin are: AFP1, AFG2, AFG1, AFM2, AFM1, AFB2,
AFB1 and AFQ1 that a atoxin B1, biologically is the
most active type between theknown a atoxins (Kazemi,
Mohtadinia, Mahdavi, Akbari, & Salehpour, 2008). The
most important factors in a atoxin production include
temperature, humidity, oxygen concentration, substrate,
PH nutrients, microbial interactions, the presence or
absence of inhibitors such as organic acids as well as
mechanical damage (Amanlou, Rezaei Khkha, Ramazani,
& Meyer, 2014, Liu et al, 2015).
Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad is one of the prov-
inces, which has water resources and favorable cli-
matic conditions for rice cultivation (Nader, Kobra, &
Mohammad Javad, 2008). Six common varieties of rice
in this province are Champa, Gerdeh, Tropical Champa,
Shamim, Lenjan and Tarom (Cassel, Campbell, Draper, &
Epperson, A atoxins: Hazards in grain/a atoxicosis and
livestock, 2001), (Arafa, Bloomer, Wilson, Simpson, &
Harms, 1981). Since the review of total a atoxin has not
been conducted in this province and according to the
importance of total a atoxin monitoring in rice, thisre-
search evaluates the total a atoxin in the rice produced
in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad.
In this study, the rice sample was randomly collected
from Yasuj shops, accordingto the sampling method of
In recent years ELISA method is used for the determi-
nation of mycotoxins. The ELISA method as a gen-
eral technique for the early diagnosis and detection of
mycotoxins with advantages such as sensitivity, sample
preparation and easy operation, safety, high accuracy
and time saving can be noted. This chemical method
used antigen-antibody technique. This method is sensi-
tive, fast and relatively inexpensive(Institute of Stand-
ards and Industrial Research of Iran, 2001)-(Khosravi,
1998).Total A atoxin competitive immunoassay kit
EuroProxima B.V of the Netherlands was used to deter-
mine how much of the toxin existed in their food.
Extraction and test methods for mycotoxins in the sam-
ples were performed according to the manufacturer’s
10 g ofthe rice powder sample was homogenized with
50ml of acetonitril in room temperature for 30 min-
utes was completely shaken. The extract was  ltered by
No. 42 Whatman paper and then 50 ml of the  ltrate
was diluted with 150 ml of buffer solution.100 ml of
diluted extract was used per sink in the test.The rest was
homogenized for 10 min at roomtemperature and then
the resultant deposit was centrifuged.An aliqout (100
µl) of the supernatant was diluted with600 µl of phos-
phate buffer at pH = 7.2. An aliquot of thissolution (50
µl) or standard solution (50 µl), 50 µl of thea atoxin-
peroxidase conjugate and 50 µl of the mouseantibody
solution against alfatoxin were added to eachsink of the
used plate. The determination was replicatedthree times.
The samples were incubated for 30 min at room tem-
perature in the darkness. The free and peroxidase-com-
bined a atoxins compete for the combining site with
antibodies to mouse antibodies immobilized on theplate.
Next, the plate was emptied and washed  ve times with
phosphate buffer at pH = 7.2. Then, 50 µl of tetramethyl
benzidineAnd 50 µl of urea peroxide were added and
incubated again for 30 min in darkness. The reactionwas
terminated by adding 100 µl of the stop reagent. Theab-
sorbance of the solution was measured at a wavelength
of450 nm, using an ELISA reading apparatus. The con-
tent of a atoxins was calculated using the previously
preparedstandard curve.
Ali Mousavizadeh et al.
The results are shown in Table 1. The  ndings of this
study show that of the 45 samples all samples had total
a atoxin contamination, but it was lower than the stand-
ard limit. The limit of the toxin in different countries var-
ies from 30 g / kg to50 g food. For example, in Iran it
is 30 g / kg of food material (Food corporation of India,
2011)-(Jonathan, et al., 2004).The maximum amount of
a atoxin 6.9 and the lowest amount of poison was 0.06
.The average amount of poison in the tested samples was
measured 5.83 g / kg. Average total a atoxin concen-
tration of toxin in the samples of rice Gerdeh, Champa,
Shamim and Fajr, 6.53,6.14,4.54 and 6.12 g / kg,
respectively.The maximum data of The Gerdeh, Champa,
Shamim and Fajr, sample, 6.62,6.42,6.68 and 6.9 g / kg
respectivelyand minimum amount of them 6.42,5.24,0.06
and 5.09 respectively (Table 1). Figure 1 shows Average
total a atoxin in the rice samples.
Rice is among the food items in the basket of Irani-
ans. Due to the high consumption of rice by the Iranians
considering quality and health, it can have an important
role in maintaining and promoting overall health.How-
ever, due to the high volume of product, product diver-
sity, different cultures, different weather conditions and
other causes of contamination and harmful substances,
a variety of factors exist. Among the most important
and common infections, fungal infections and contam-
inated mold can be noted. A atoxins and Ochratoxin
by a group of the secondary metabolites of fungi that
are particularly Aspergillus arise Azqarch. Studies have
shown that post-harvest processing as well as applying
proper drying and storage to reduce pollution and pre-
vent its spread areis is required (Rustom, 1997)-(Sama-
rajeewa, Sen, & Cohen, 1990). In a study by Kazemi
et al on rice East Azerbaijan, 23% of the samples were
infected. (Department of Planning & Economic Infor-
mation and Communication Technology Center, 2013-
2014). In another study by Rezai on imported rice in
Zabol, 6.27% of thesamples hadfungal infection (Center
for Statistics and Information Technology Ministry of
Agriculture , 2013-2014).
A recent study by (Liu et al, 2015) on the 370 rice
schema from six provinces in China was conducted to
determine a atoxin and Ochratoxin A 5/63 percent and
9.4 percent, The results showed that the samples con-
tained Ochratoxin a 4.1% of samples were a atoxin
and a atoxin and 3.0% of samples above the limit
Ochratoxin a Europe Union (Farsiani, Marziye, Mahsa,
Mohamad reza, & Mahmoud, 2014).Figure 1 shows the
present study.Most of that total a atoxin investigate the
prevalence of less than 30 ng per mg, based on Table 1,
Table 1. Analysis of total a atoxin in the samples of
rice in the city of Yasooj.
Mim Max SD Average number of
6.42 6.63 0.09 6.53 7 Gerdeh
5.24 6.42 0.21 6.14 17 Champa
0.06 6.48 2.02 4.54 11 Shamim
5.09 6.9 0.58 6.12 9 Fajr
FIGURE 1. Comparison of the average total a atoxin in the samples with standard limit
Ali Mousavizadeh et al.
the average total a atoxin in samples examined 83/5
on the ng/mg. In a study by Elena Suárez-Bonnet et al
(2013), based on the total a atoxin contamination (B1,
G1, B2, and G2) in rice from Mexico and Aspanya, the
results showed that the average total a atoxin of Span-
ish rice was 37 / 3 micrograms per kg, in the range of 6.1
to 1383 mg/ kg (SuárezBonnet, et al., 2013).
Comparing the results of this study and studies in the
country and other countries it can be concluded that the
rice examined in this study is more desirable. However,
the potential pollution. to the fungus and toxins result-
ing from it and universal standards in the harvest of
all itemsshould beapplied to the provide perfect condi-
tions for transportation and time- consuming mainte-
nance. Another important point is that the cultivation
and harvest time or until you quit at the end of bran or
less is consumed, the possibility of less contamination
is more. The role of temperature in mold growth and
toxin production after harvesting isproven and it must
be maintained at the right temperature as much as the
mold growth is prevented.
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