Biosci. Biotech. Res. Comm. Special Issue : 118-121 (2017)
Protective effects of Vitamin C on kidney performance
of an adult male rat exposed to formaldehyde
Mohammad Hoseini Kasnaviyeh, Ebrahim Nasiri, Fatemeh Mohammadi, Samira Vaziri,
Reza Mosaddegh, Amir Noyani, Arezoo Dehghani and Gholamreza Masoumi*
Department of Medical Science, Emergency Medicine Management Research Center University of Medical
Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Formaldehyde is a chemical material with a nasty smell which is used in  xing cadavers, histology processes, syn-
thetic resins, wooden and plastic productions and industrial  ber production. Formaldehyde has also a negative effect
on body organs such as kidney. The target of this study is investigation of protection effect of Vitamin C on kidney
performance of male rate exposed to formaldehyde, with regard to this fact that antioxidants like Vitamin C play a
crucial role on protection against the damage occurred by smelling formaldehyde. 24 adult male rats were involved
in this study with 250-300 gr weights. The rats were divided into 3 groups. The  rst group called control group (c)
receive 1cc/kg formaldehyde and the second group (E1) received 10mg/kg formaldehyde and the third group (E2)
received 10 mg/kg formaldehyde with 200 mg/kg Vitamin C for 10 days by daily injection. After 3 weeks of the last
injection, phlebotomy was performed and the serum level of urea and creatinine was evaluated and compared in three
groups. The result of Urea level comparison was meaningful among three groups (P<0.05). In the groups receiving
formaldehyde and Vitamin C at the same time, there were not any signi cant difference related to the Urea level with
control group (P=0.239). The Urea level of E2 group in comparison with E1 group was not meaningful (p=0.149).
However, the comparison of creatinine was meaningful among these groups (P<0.05). However, treatment with Vita-
min C in the E2 group, could not signi cantly effect on creatinine increase (P<0.05). The level of creatinine in E2
group is not meaningful rather than E1 group. In conclusion, it was observed that 10 days injection of 200 (mg/kg)
Vitamin C in the peritoneal can avoid increasing of Urea due to formalin among adult rats.
*Corresponding Author:
Received 27
Nov, 2016
Accepted after revision 28
Feb, 2017
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Kasnaviyeh, Nasiri, Mohammadi and Vaziri
Formaldehyde is a chemical material with a nasty smell
(Golalipour et al. 2007). Which is used in  xing cadav-
ers, histology processes, synthetic resins, wooden and
plastic productions and industrial  ber production for-
maldehyde has a negative effect on performance of body
organs (Mendis-Handagama et al. 2007). It is metabo-
lized to formic acid by dehydrogenase formaldehyde
and dehydrogenase aldehyde enzymes in the liver and
erythrocyte which is exorcised through urine, excretion
and breathing with different macromolecules such as
protein, acid nucleic or interact with the light molecules
like amino acid (Cheng et al. 2003; Collins and Lineker,
2004). Formaldehyde can cause oxidative stress in the
body and has a bad effect on respiratory system and
blood circulation and kidney (Kini et al. 2004). Antioxi-
dants such a components that help body to destroy free
radicals oxidative stress is actually imbalance between
oxidants and antioxidants. When the amount of oxi-
dants increases, the cells are damaged. Antioxidants
include Vitamin A, E, C, Zn and selenium which play
a crucial rate on inhibition of free radicals and stability
of cell membrane (Kini et al. 2004). Vitamin C (Ascorbic
Acid) is a white or yellow odorless solid substrate with
the molecular formulation of C6H806. Ascorbic Acid is
produced in the liver of plants and animals (except some
special kind and human). Vitamin C operates as antioxi-
dants in the body and cause acceleration of Fe, Cu and
also revives of folic acid and collagen making (Kum et
al. 2011). Vitamin C as a soluble antioxidant becomes
active by moving oxygen and nitrogen elements (Rekha
et al. 2011).
Vitamin C has also an important role in protecting
the kidney and it can prevent increasing urea and cre-
atinine in the oxidative damage (Sokkary and Awadalla,
2011; Agarwal et al. 2010; Yurdakul et al. 2010). One of
the most important damage of formaldehyde is kidney
damage (Umemura et al. 2009; Coronel et al. 2010). Oxi-
dants are able to change proliferative in the glomerule
structure of kidney (Coronel et al. 2010; Saleem et al.
2012). Antioxidants consumption can prevent damage
of kidney (Djeffal et al. 2011; Ememghorashy et al. 2012;
Claudia et al. 2003; Qiu et al. 2010; Zhou et al. 2006).
The kidney performance can be evaluated by investigat-
ing the indicators of blood (Hai Xia et al. 2012; Ukmali
et al. 2011). With regard to the formaldehyde effects in
making oxidative stress, free radicals and their effect
on kidney performance and in accordance with the
performed studies related to the formaldehyde on the
kidney tissue changes as glomerule vascular congestion
and also minor decline holes in the pipe cells and studies
about the protection effect of Vitamin C on prevention
of formaldehyde damage (Sajadi et al. 2008; Farmahini
et al. 2008), in this study, we decided to investigate the
protection effect of Vitamin C on kidney performance of
mats after exposing to formaldehyde.
Ether was used in this study to anesthesia the rats and
5cc syringe with anatomy tools was used for phlebotomy
and also centrifugal tool for separating rat’s serum. In
this study 24 adult rat of vista bread were selected and
divided into 3 equal groups. The  rst group (c) received
1cc/kg of normal saline and the second group (E2)
received 10 mg/kg formaldehyde and the third group
(E3) received both 10mg/kg formaldehyde and 200 mg/
kg Vitamin C in 10 days by injection into peritoneal.
During the study, the rats were under normal condition
of shelter with 24±2 temperature and appropriate feed-
ing. 3 weeks after  nishing the injection phlebotomy,
after anesthesia by sterile syringe was performed. After
making  occulation by centrifuge, samples were sepa-
rated with 1500 rpm during 10 minutes and they were
kept in -20 c till testing for evaluation of urea and cre-
atinine. The amount of urea and creatinine by using Pars
Azmoon kits and auto analyzer tool (Biotectica Instru-
ment BT 1000) were evaluated and Calorimetric was
done on kits to evaluate urea and jaffe was performed to
evaluate creatinine. Data analysis after entering the data
to SPSS Ver 18 was done by using Shapiro-wilk test to
investigate normality of cantinas quantitative data dis-
tribution. The explicit result of the groups was reported
as average and deviation from standard deviation. The
comparison between the investigated groups was per-
formed by using ANOVA test. If the average differences
of statistic results were meaningful the LSD test were
used to compare them. The meaningful level was con-
sidered less than 0.05 (P<0.05)
The urea result was meaningful in 3 groups (P<0.05)
and the increase of urea in E1 group (after receiving
formaldehyde) rather than C group (after receiving
normal saline) was also meaningful (P<0.05). While
the increase amount of urea in E2 group (after receiv-
ing formaldehyde and Vitamin C) rather than C group
was not meaningful (p=0.239). The increase amount of
urea in E1 group rather than E2 was not meaningful
(p=0.149). The creatinine result in 3 groups was mean-
ingful (p<0.05). The increase amount of creatinine of E1
group in comparison with C group was also meaningful
(p<0.05) and the increase amount of creatinine in E2
group in comparison with C group was also meaning-
ful (p<0.05). While the increase amount of creatinine
Kasnaviyeh, Nasiri, Mohammadi and Vaziri
in E group rather than E2 group was not meaningful
Formaldehyde can affect the body organs due to creat-
ing free radicals (Yurdakul et al. 2010). Formaldehyde
can also affect the kidney performance such as excretion
of waste substances (Umemura et al. 2009). Antioxidant
can prevent the harmful effect of formaldehyde. Vita-
mins are one of the most important antioxidants – espe-
cially Vitamin C – which play an effective role in protec-
tion against oxidative damage caused by free raducals
(Coronel et al. 2010). On the other hand, this Vitamin
can enhance the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the
kidney tissue (Saleem et al. 2012). This study is similar
to the Kum C study for investigating urea amount (Kum
et al. 2011). Although in the Kum C study, the effect
of formalin smell on rat’s body was investigated and
the meaningful difference was just related to the urea
amount. While In our study the meaningful difference
in the Creatinine and urea was observed between the
group exposed to formaldehyde and the control group
In the study of Sajad, et al., injecting Vitamin C
causes the decrease of urea and creatinine meaningful
(p<0.05). In the patients suffering from kidney damage
under analysis treatment (Sajadi et al. 2008) however,
according to our study, injecting Vitamin C had not a
signi cant effect on decreasing the creatinine amount in
the rat’s exposed to the formaldehyde. The result of this
part of the study which is the main part of it is similar
to other studies related to the investigating the protec-
tion effect of this Vitamin C is effective on prevention
against bad effect of some substrates like formaldehyde
due to reducing the amount of free radicals. In this
study, the result of investigating urea and creatinine in
3 groups had a meaningful difference (p<0.05) in which
the amount of them in the rats exposed to formaldehyde
had a signi cant difference with the control group. The
injection of Vitamin C enhance the changes of the urea
amount (p<0.05). However, there were not any meaning-
ful changes relate to the creatinine (p>0.05) .The average
of creatinine in E2 group exposed to formaldehyde and
treated by Vitamin C (0.74±0.09) was less than E1 group
Although these changes couldn’t make an effect in
the meaningful difference between E2 group and con-
trol group. With regard to the above and the performed
experiments, it was observed that formaldehyde known
as a harmful substrate and exposing to formaldehyde can
effect on excretion substrate from kidneys. In this study
formaldehyde was the cause of the meaningful difference
in the creatinine and Urea level in the group exposed to
formaldehyde in comparison with control group.
In various studies, the effects of antioxidants as a
protection agent on body organs have been approved. In
this study, injecting the Vitamin C could prevent mean-
ingful changes in the urea level of the group exposed
to the formaldehyde. According to the above results, it
was concluded that injecting of 200 mg/kg Vitamin C
into peritoneal during 10 days can reduce the increase
of urea amount due to formalin in the adult male rats.
With regard to the performed study, Vitamin C can be
used as one of the most important antioxidants which
have a protective relative effect against kidney poison-
ing by formaldehyde.
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