Comparative analysis on the levels of some bioactive
constituents of Asian and African garlic types
Nuha Mohammed Elhassan Satti
, Ishraga Eltayeb Mohamed A-Elbasit
, Fatima Abdallah
Mohammed Ahmed
and Sharaf Eldin Hussain Eltahir
Assistant Professor, Department of Biology, College of Arts and Science, Northern Border University
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Rafah City
Associate Professor, Department of Basic Health Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Northern Border University.
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Rafah City
Assistant Professor, Department of Biology, College of Arts and Science, Northern Border University
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Rafah City
Doctor of Forensic Sciences and Biochemistry, Collaborate Researcher, Forensic Sciences Institute, National
Ribat University, Khartoum, Sudan
The present study investigates the comparative levels of some bioactive constituents of the important plant Allium sati-
vum (garlic). Comparisons have been made on the levels within three garlic types, one type from Asia (Chinese garlic),
and two African garlic types from Sudan. Results showed that the garlic from South-western Sudan (Zalenge region)
had higher levels concerning most of the constituents, particularly it contains 38.17±1.26 g/100g of carbohydrate,
2.53±0.45 g/100g fat, 110.00±2.45 mg/100g phosphorus, and 185.22 ±2.47 mg/100g calcium as compared to 29.00±1.00
g/100g, 1.23±0.25 g/100g, 90.22±1.66 mg/100g, and 176.60±1.20 mg/100g, respectively of the Northern Sudan garlic,
and 23.97±1.06 g/100g, 0.57±0.21 g/100g, 99.11±3.72 mg/100g, and 148.21±3.28 mg/100g, respectively of the Chinese
garlic. The variations were almost due to the enriched soil of that region of Sudan which is known as a source of many
plant products, either cultivated or naturally grown. The justi cation for the uncertainty of results of allicin levels in
garlic samples had been discussed.
Biosci. Biotech. Res. Comm. 11(4): 556-562 (2018)
Corresponding Authors:
Received 19
Oct, 2018
Accepted after revision 19
Dec, 2018
BBRC Print ISSN: 0974-6455
Online ISSN: 2321-4007 CODEN: USA BBRCBA
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© A Society of Science and Nature Publication, Bhopal India
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Online Contents Available at: http//
DOI: 10.21786/bbrc/11.4/4
Nuha Mohammed Elhassan Satti et al.
The botanical name of garlic is (Allium sativum L., Ama-
ryllidaceae) (Cruz and García 2007, Block 2010). Com-
mon garlic is classi ed as Allium sativum, British wild
garlic as Allium oleraceum, and American wild garlic
as Allium candense (Block 2010). The plant is likely to
have originated from Central Asia, USA, Central Amer-
ica, Iran, and Egypt. It is now cultivated worldwide, but
China provides 80% of the total world production (Cruz
2007). The garlic plant is one of the most popular herbs
(traditional medicine) and spices (food  avoring agent)
in the world, (Butt et al. 2009). There are more than 70
garlic varieties. Garlic is a bulb-shaped plant belongs
to the onion family, it is close relative to the onion and
resembles it in size and growth habit. The plant grows
as a vegetable rosette close to the ground, (Block 2010,
Renton 2013 and FAOSTAT 2017).
Garlic (Allium satvium L.) is an important vegeta-
ble crop in the Northern, Central, and Western Sudan
(River Nile State and Darfur State) during the winter
season, (October – March) (Ahmed et al. 1984, Nouria
1994, Mohammed Ali and El-Sayed 1999, Fact sh web-
site 2017). However, the production of garlic in Sudan is
humble as compared to its enormous agricultural poten-
tial, it is ranked as the 22nd in the world, (Fact sh web-
site 2017). Sudanese variety of garlic is preferred for its
strong odor and  avor compared to that imported from
South Asian region, although the latter is bigger in size
and easy in peeling.Usually, the garlic bulb (head) con-
sists of (6 to 35) discrete bulblets called cloves . InAllium
sativumthere are 10–12 cloves per bulb andAllium por-
rum is a single clove type of garlic. Each garlic clove
is made up of just one leaf base, unlike onions, which
are composed of numerous leaf layers, (Shah and Qudry
1996 Muhammad Ibrahim et al. 2018).
The storage part of the garlic plant is the clove and
not the leaves (Libner Nonnecke 1989). The characteristic
pungent odor, the unique  avor, aroma, and biological
effects of garlic are generally attributed to its organosul-
fur components (particularly allicin) (Block 2010, Shah
and Qudry 1996), in addition to diallyl trisul de (DATS)
and diallyl disul de (DADS) and derivatives which are
released from garlic upon their processing (mincing,
chewing and etc.) (Makoto et al. 2006 Block 2010).
The allicin generated from garlic is unstable so it
quickly changes into a series of other sulfur-containing
compounds such asdiallyl disul de (by the enzymeallii-
nase), therefore the garlic should be consumed immedi-
ately after crushing (Cavallito et al. 1944). Allicin has a
very short half-life breaking down within 16 hours at
23°C (Hahn 1996), and it is very volatile, so it takes a
lot of garlic to gain those bene ts (Lanzotti 2005). Harris
et al., stated that allicin decomposes rapidly and some
smaller metabolic breakdown products also exert strong
antimicrobial effects (Harris et al 2001). Alliin is a deriv-
ative of theamino acidcysteine, and it is not present in
garlic unless tissue damage occurs, (Iberl et al., 1990).
Alliin transforms to allicin on crushing the natural
garlic cloves or bulb, so the commercial garlic prepara-
tions may contain no allicin. Allicin  rst reported by
Cavallito and Bailey in 1944, and then Cavallito  rst
noted its potent antimicrobial activity (Cavallito et al.
1944). Many researchers found that the allicin quan-
tity depends on the cultivation region and harvest date,
and fertilization especially with sulfur (Block 2010). But
Baghalian reported no signi cant correlation between
the ecological condition and the allicin content (Baghal-
ian et al. 2005). Out of different garlic extracts, the “Aged
Garlic Extract” (AGE) is the prominent one, with the
highest antioxidant activity, even more than fresh garlic
and other commercial garlic supplements. AGE contains
phytochemicals (tannins,  avonoid, Saponin and gly-
coside) and also contains phenolic compounds, alka-
loids, terpenoids and fatty acids (Butt et al. 2009, Shah
and Qudry 1996). Crushed raw garlic is high in allicin,
containing 37 mg/g. Allicin content found ranged from
0.16–13.0 mg/g in Iranian garlic ecotypes, measured by
HPLC method (Baghalian et al. 2005).
Differences in the concentrations of organosulfur
compounds in different garlic types may affect the
medicinal properties of the garlic (Block 2010, Hassan
Khalid et al. 2012, Huzaifa et al. 2014). In addition to
these organosulfur compounds, fresh garlic is a source
of numerous vitamins like vitamins B-6 and C, and min-
erals although their quantities may vary depending on
the type of soil on which they are cultivated (Stephen &
John 2000).
The long history of the medicinal use of garlic is well-
documented. Since the time of Louis Pasteur (1858) and
Lehmann (1930), garlic was used as an antibacterial agent,
and till recent time studies were conducted on garlic as
an inhibitor of bacterial growth (Alejandra et al. 2010).
The properties of garlic against atherosclerosis, coronary
thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and its inhibition of
platelet aggregation and the proliferation of cancer cells
had been reported (Lawson 1992). Traditionally garlic is
known as an important antiseptic, and it has hypoten-
sive, anthelmintic, chloretic and expectorant properties,
it shows a hypoglycemic activity (Beretz and Cazenave
1991, Lawson, Ransom and Hughes 1992, Mostofa et al.
2007). It is used to treat intestinal infection (Cavallito
et al. 1944), and treats ailments like diarrhea, headache,
and dysentery and showed to have antifungal (Saha and
Bandyopadhyay 2017), antibacterial, antiviral, antiproto-
zoal, and antifungal activity. Garlic inhibits the growth of
both bacteria and fungi (Saha and Bandyopadhyay 2017,
Emad Mohamed Abdallah 2017).
Nuha Mohammed Elhassan Satti et al.
It has antioxidant properties, increases the levels of
antioxidant enzymes of the liver, so reduce in ammation
(Sha Li et al 2015, Hassan Khalid 2012). Garlic can help
to chelate heavy metals and promote their excretion by
the body (Ashraf Nasr 2014). The effectiveness of gar-
lic may be prevention rather than therapy, thus it may
need long-term supplementation (Leyla Bayan et al 2014).
The mechanism by which allicin treats infections in peo-
ple seems to be unclear. This study compares the levels
of some bioactive constituents of three types of garlic,
Chinese garlic (the most produced Asian garlic), and the
Sudanese garlic (African garlic type) which had been rep-
resented by two types, one from Northern Sudan, and
the second type is from South-western Sudan, a region
called Zalengei located in Darfur State. This last garlic
type would be mentioned as “Zalengei garlic” throughout
this study, as it is a common local name in Sudan.
Samples of three types of garlic were collected, two
types were from Sudan (One from Northern Sudan and
the other from South-western Sudan - Zalengie -), the
third type was a Chinese garlic purchased from Omdur-
man local market. These types had been con rmed and
authenticated by a collective agreement of specialized
Doctors and technicians of the concerned laboratories
and herbarium section, in addition to the collective
opinions of the importing and exporting experts work-
ing in this  eld.A series of laboratory experiments were
undertaken at the College of Agricultural Studies, Sudan
University of Science and Technology at Shambat. Gar-
lic fruits were then crushed using grinding machine.
Extraction method: 100 grams of each sample were
weighted into 1000ml conical  ask using sensitive bal-
ance; Samples extracted using of Ethanol 70% (500 ml)
in a shaker 200 rpm for 24h at room temperature and
subsequently  ltrated under suction (reduce pressure
using vacuum pump), extract samples were transferred
to ice form using (-20C˚) refrigerator and dried using
freeze dryer machine (-50 C˚ for 48 h). Dry samples were
collected and kept in vials till used.
The moisture content was determined according to of
the Association of Of cial Analytical Chemists (AOAC,
2008). Two grams were weighed into a pre-dried and
tarred dish. Then, the sample was placed into an oven
(No.03-822, FN 400, Turkey) at 105 °C±1 °C until a con-
stant weight was obtained. After drying, the covered
sample was transferred to a desiccator and cooled to
room temperature before reweighing. Triplicate results
were obtained for each sample and the mean value was
reported according to the following formula;
W1= Sample weight before drying
W2 =Sample weight after drying
Wt1=initial sample weight
The ash content was determined according to the method
described by Pearson (1981). Five grams were weighed
into a pre-heated, cooled, weighed and tarred porcelain
crucible and placed into a Muf e furnace (No.20. 301870,
Carbolite, England) at 550 to 600 °C until a white-gray
ash was obtained. The crucible was transferred to a des-
iccator then allowed to cool to room temperature and
weighed. After that, the ash content was calculated as
a percentage based on the initial weight of the sample.
Crude  ber content was determined according to the of -
cial method of the AOAC (2008). Two gram of a defatted
sample was placed into a conical  ask containing 20m1
of H
(0.26 N). condensed and allowed to boil for 30
minutes. the digest was  ltered (under vacuum). rinsed
and boiled in 20 ml NaOH (0.23 N) solution for 30 min
under re ux condenser and the precipitate was  ltered,
rinsed with hot distilled water, 20m1 ethyl alcohol (96%)
and 20 ml diethyl ether. Finally, the crucible was dried
at 105 °C (overnight) to a constant weight, cooled (in a
desiccator), weighed, ashed in a Muf e furnace (No.20.
301870, Carbolite, England) at 550-600 °C until a con-
stant weight was obtained and the difference in weight
was considered as crude  ber.
The protein content was determined in all samples by
micro-Kjeldahl method using a copper sulphate-sodium
sulphate catalyst according to the of cial method of the
AOAC (2008). Two gram sample was transferred together
with 4g Na
of Kjeldahl catalysts (No. 0665, Scharlau
chemie, Spain) and 25m1 of concentrated sulphuric acid
(No. 0548111, HDWIC, India) into a Kjeldahl digestion
ask. After that, the  ask was placed into a Kjeldahl
digestion unit (No. 4071477, type KI 26, Gerhardt, Ger-
many) for about 2 hours until a colourless digest was
obtained and the  ask was left to Cool to room tempera-
ture. The distillation of ammonia was carried out into
Nuha Mohammed Elhassan Satti et al.
25m1 boric acid (2%) by using 20m1 distilled. water and
70m1 sodium hydroxide solution (45%). Finally, the dis-
tillate was titrated with standard solution of HCI (0.1N)
in the presence of 2-3 drops of bromocresol green and
methyl red as an indicator until a brown reddish colour
was observed.
Crude protein% = Nitrogen% x Protein conversion fac-
tor (6.25)
Total and available carbohydrates were calculated by
difference according to the following equations:
Total carbohydrates = 100 - (Moisture + Protein + Fat
+ Ash)
Available carbohydrates = Total carbohydrates – Crude
Fat content was determined according to the of cial
method of AOAC (2008).
Samples had been put in extraction thimble , then
about 100 ml hexane were attached to the extraction
unit (Electrothermal, England), after 16 hr extraction
process , the solvent was redistilled, put in an oven at
105 . for 3 hr, cooled in a desiccator, reweighed and the
dried extract was registered as fat content according to
the following formula;
W2 =Weight of the  ask and ether extract
W1 =Weight of the empty  ask
W3=initial weight of the sample
To analyze the minerals content, Samples were placed
into a muf e furnace (No.20. 301870, Carbolite, England)
at 550 to 600 °C. the ash content was cooled and 10 ml
of HCI (2.0N) was added. the concentrations of Minerals
were determined using, Atomic Absorption Spectropho-
tometer (3110-Perkin Elmer. USA).The investigation of
alliin and allicin (thiosul nates) concentrations in garlic
bulbs were determined using HPLC methods according
to Iberl (1990).
The physical appearance and the size of bulbs (and
cloves) variations between the tested three samples were
shown in (Fig 1).
Apparently and physically, the Zalenge garlic has
more  avor, stronger taste, and it has smaller blub and
cloves and darker color than both the Northern-Sudan
garlic and the Chinese garlic (Fig 2).
Regardless of these results, the  avor is very subjec-
tive and personal, and there is not truly accurate sci-
enti c measurement for it. Zalenge garlic is denser and
heavier (more solid). It is rarely found in the national
markets because of its low production in that region of
the Sudan which is suffering under national war and
social con icts.
Our  ndings of the measured parameters of the three
garlic types, North-Sudan garlic, Zalenge garlic, and
Chinese garlic, were shown in (Table1).
The low moisture content of Zalenge garlic (40.97%)
compared to the other garlic samples and other garlic
types reported by previous studies may lead to higher
concentrations of the garlic clove constituents, i.e. cre-
ate more dense clove. The two Sudanese garlic types
(South-Sudan, and Zalenge) had an almost similar pro-
tein content (6.50g/100g, and 6.73g/100g, respectively),
but Zalenge garlic had a higher carbohydrate content
(38.17g/100g), and fat content (2.53g/100g). The levels of
the phosphorus and calcium were higher in the Zalenge
garlic (110.00 mg/100g, 185.22 mg/100g, res.) than lev-
els we found in North-Sudan garlic, but they were simi-
FIGURE 1. Appearance and size of the studied garlic types [The largest: Chinese garlic; The medium: North-
ern Sudan garlic; The smallest: Zalenge garlic]
Nuha Mohammed Elhassan Satti et al.
lar to, or lower than levels reported by some previous
studies, Rossella et al. (2016) reported 180mg/100g of
Ca, besides other studies reported higher Ca levels. A
notable variation was observed in the concentration of
the mineral Ca between the two Sudanese samples from
one hand and the Chinese garlic from the other hand.
The amount of trace minerals contained in garlic is a
function of their presence in the soil on which they were
grown (Stephen & John 2000).
We couldn’t obtain precise and certain values of thio-
sul nates in the different trials of the three garlic types.
The non-precise thiosul nates results may be due not
only to the technical uncertainty of our laboratories and
the unavailability of the pure standards, but may also
be due to the unstable nature of the allicin compound,
that (thiosul nates) were converted giving rise to a wide
variety of derived sulfur compounds (Lanzotti 2005).
The allicin content of the Iranian garlic ecotypes ranged
from 0.16–13.0 mg/g (Baghalian et al. 2000). Stephen
& John (2000) reported that allicin content of Califor-
nia garlic is higher than in the Chinese garlic (Alejandra
Although Eugeniusz (2007) couldn’t detect allicin or
allin in powdered garlic, he found 11.12 of allin, and
4.91 of allicin in the raw garlic bulbs. In contrast, Miron
(2004) found a level of 10g/kg alliin at most in pow-
dered garlic. Others reported a range of 2.5 - 5.1mg/g as
a total allicin-yield of fresh, crushed garlic, but Miron
found higher allicin levels at 37mg/g in crushed raw
garlic. Iberl (1990) stated that, upon crushing, allin
quantity is about double of the allicin of the raw garlic
bulb.Although our study preferred to neglect to report
these uncertain results, we expect the existence of a
high total allicin-yield of Zalenge garlic more than other
garlic types because Zalenge garlic had higher contents
of most of the natural constituents, higher density,  a-
vor, and stronger taste.These variations were explained
by the difference in the genetic variations of the garlic
types, differences in the environmental conditions and
soil ecology.
FIGURE 2. Appearance and size of the bulb (left) and cloves (right)
of Zalenge garlic
Table 1. Levels of some parameters of the North-Sudan garlic, Zalenge garlic,
and Chinese garlic
parameter Results of Samples*
Chinese garlic North- Sudan garlic Zalenge garlic
Moisture% 55.57 ± 0.21 50.30 ± 0.44 40.97 ± 0.21
pH 6.05 ± 0.06 5.13 ± 0.12 5.83 ± 0.06
Crude ash% 4.50 ± 0.06 4.53 ± 0.3 3.77 ± 0.25
Crude  bre g/100g 2.04 ± 0.06 4.03 ± 0.35 4.03 ± 0.45
Crude protein g/100g 5.00 ± 0.60 6.50 ± 0.40 6.73 ± 0.50
Carbohydrate g/100g 23.97 ± 1.06 29.00 ± 1.00 38.17 ± 1.26
Fat g/100g 0.57 ± 0.21 1.23 ± 0.25 2.53 ± 0.45
Phosphorus mg/100g 99.11 ± 3.72 90.22 ± 1.66 110.00 ± 2.45
Calcium mg/100g 148.21 ±3.28 176.60 ±1.20 185.22 ± 2.47
*Mean ± SD of triplicate trials ( n=3) on dry weight (DW) basis.
Nuha Mohammed Elhassan Satti et al.
Results revealed the variations on the levels of some
active constituents of the three garlic tested types. Par-
ticularly, Zalenge garlic (grown in South-Western Sudan)
was heavier, denser, and had more  avor than Chinese
garlic which had bigger bulbs and easily peeled. Zalenge
garlic contains higher levels of carbohydrate, fat, phos-
phorus, and calcium than the imported Chinese garlic,
these higher concentrations may improve the taste and
avor of Zalenge garlic. Determination of physicochem-
ical properties is a necessary step to identify and obtain
data on the nutritional value of each garlic type. This
study remains unfortunately insuf cient for charac-
terization of different African garlic types, which need
to be completed by a further quantitative analysis. The
chemistry behind garlic health-promoting effects was
not fully understood, and the safety of allicin to treat
infections in people was still unclear.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the approval and
the support of this research study by the grant no
(7463-SAR-2017-1-8-F) from the Deanship of Scienti c
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