Features of soil renaturation: an application for
ecological rehabilitation of disturbed lands
Fedor Lisetskii
Professor of Mining and Natural Resource Management, Belgorod State National Research University,
Belgorod, Russian Federation Russia
Land reclamation is disproportionate of areas that are diverted to mining, despite the requirements of environmental
legislation. This creates an arena for the process of mine dumps overgrowth, which is similar to the renaturation aban-
doned sites. In a variety of the environmental conditions and with a wide amplitude of changes in factors, young eco-
systems on the mine dumps and abandoned sites (after 30-70 years) form a spectrum of development pathways, which is
characteristic of the adaptive self-organization of complex natural systems. Studying the various environmental resto-
ration pathways of disturbed lands gives an understanding of the renaturation stages and rates, which allows moving to
a controlled technology of plant and soil cover reproduction. The organic carbon accumulation values comparison in a
comparable soil thickness showed that the ef ciency of soil restoration in the forest-steppe with the postindustrial mine
dumps renaturation compared to the restoration of the abandoned sites in the steppe zone were twice as high. This is due
to the higher bioclimatic potential of the renaturation conditions; in particular, the sum of annual precipitation in the
forest-steppe is more by 275 mm than in the steppe. However, the quantitative and qualitative indicators of pedogenesis
(morphological structure, accumulation of organic carbon) show themselves similar to various bioclimatic conditions
both in the renaturation of post technogenic and in the lands’ ordinary mechanical disturbances, which would help to
implement the universal technologies for the controlled renaturation of the disturbed lands. The established rates for the
environmental rehabilitation of degraded land will be useful in implementing an irrecoverable conservation scenario
where the most necessary types of ecosystems and aesthetic rehabilitation badlands can be formed.
Biosci. Biotech. Res. Comm. 11(4): 541-547 (2018)
Corresponding Authors: liset@bsu.edu.ru
Received 1
Oct, 2018
Accepted after revision 12
Dec, 2018
BBRC Print ISSN: 0974-6455
Online ISSN: 2321-4007 CODEN: USA BBRCBA
Thomson Reuters ISI ESC / Clarivate Analytics USA
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© A Society of Science and Nature Publication, Bhopal India
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Online Contents Available at: http//www.bbrc.in/
DOI: 10.21786/bbrc/11.4/2
Fedor Lisetskii
The post-technogenic landscapes formation occurs under
the combined in uence of both natural and technologi-
cal factors. The mining technology is connected with the
formation of a technogenic relief, placement and rock-
to-earth ratio. Natural factors include the geographical
location of the mine excavations area, their background
landscape-ecological surroundings, habitats-sources
availability and the age of technogenic complexes. Vio-
lated reclamation lands during the development of the
mineral deposit and in connection with the industrial
facilities construction, include the technical stage of the
works. This stage creates a geomorphological and litho-
genic basis for the formation of post-technogenic land-
scapes. At the same time, land survey work is usually
carried out to smooth out the open pit sides, to create ter-
races on slopes at the mine dumps, planning recultivated
surfaces for antierosion purposes, chemical reclamation
(if necessary) of toxic rocks, or to apply a high-veloc-
ity layer from a potentially fertile rock. In the opera-
tion of ore mining and processing facilities, wastes are
moved to tailing dumps, for which prevention activities
or reduction of damage from environmental contamina-
tion are very important .The environmental reclamation
of a mine dumps can be de ned as the general process
of repairing disturbed, damaged, degraded, or destroyed
land with respect to its former or other productive uses,
(Favas, 2017; Rafkatovich and Mironova, 2018).
The  nal part of the technical stage of reclamation –
moving the fertile soil layer out of the temporary mine
dumps and applying it to the prepared surface – can be
replaced with land renaturation, which was used, for
example, in land reclamation for forestry use. Other meth-
ods of biological reclamation are now practiced plant
growing (cultivation of agricultural crops); agromelio-
ration (special methods of soil treatment); landscaping;
agroforestry (protective forest belts); phytoreclamation
(cultivation or maintenance of natural plant communi-
ties); bioremediation. The environmental reclamation is
a broad concept encompassing all the other terms com-
monly referred to (restoration, rehabilitation, replace-
ment, remediation, mitigation), used alone or combined
(Gilland and McCarthy, 2014; Ngugi et al., 2015; Zenkov,
2016; Zamotaev et al., 2017; Favas, 2017).
Lands, where the methods of the biological reclama-
tion are not involved and the process of mine dumps
overgrowth is under way, can be under the controlled
process of reproduction of plant and soil cover. The
fact is that the rate of soil formations in overgrowth is
small: only after 10 (12) years and more on the destroyed
lands do the differentiation of plant species composition
becomes dominant and a stable plant cover with lay-
ers and seasonal dynamics is formed (Golovanov et al.,
2009). If the surrounding ecosystems have a low regen-
eration potential, which is typical for internal areas of
the technogenic landscapes, then the targeted construc-
tion of the ecosystem renaturation is the most rational
way. The soil development depends on the hydrothermal
and geochemical processes that cause differentiation of
the landscape conditions both in the natural setting and
on arti cial structures (Lisetskii et al., 2016). Geochemical
features of the technogenic substrates are determined by a
more complex mineralogical composition (Alekseev et al.,
2008) and high content of heavy metals (Akbari, 2016).
Formation of soil cover has a subordinate charac-
ter with respect to the development of phytocenoses,
although it proceeds syngenetically (Goleusov and Liset-
skii, 2008). Technologies of renaturation should be based
on observing the sequence of the main stages of succes-
sion of phytocenoses: pioneer groupings (1-3 years) –
simple groupings (3-8 years) – complex groupings (8-15
years). In the case of favourable edaphic and soil-form-
ing properties of the substrate, accelerated renaturation
scenarios are possible: the community’s formation from
climax” plants species (Goleusov, 2003; Tokhtar and
Martynova, 2015).
The bioclimatic potential study of the territory and
the renaturation’s natural mechanisms potential make it
possible to outline effective optimal rehabilitation meth-
ods of disturbed lands. This study aims to assess the soil
renaturation results of the destroyed lands during their
formation by different types of anthropogenic transfor-
mation from the lithogenic basis under contrasting bio-
climatic conditions.
Study area: The study was carried out at two test sites:
in the forest-steppe (Belgorod Oblast, career in the
extraction of iron ore) and steppe (Crimean Peninsula,
at part). The area of Belgorod Oblast is relatively small
(27.1 thousand km
), but over 200 kinds of useful min-
erals have been identi ed in this territory. The Kursk
Magnetic Anomaly (KMA) is a large iron-ore province
with a total area of 125 thousand km
that extends from
south-east to north-west at 625 km and a width of up
to 250 km (Kornilov et al., 2014; Petin and Ignatenko,
2016). The territory of Belgorod Oblast includes 14 of 18
explored iron-ore mineral deposits of the KMA basin.
The balance iron ore reserves in the Belgorod Oblast
reach 51.32 bn t (78% of all KMA reserves or 51.2%
of the reserves of Russia), and in addition the region
contains 97.4 % All-Russian stocks of rich ores (with Fe
content 53-62%) (Petin and Ignatenko, 2016).
In addition, Belgorod Oblast has 328 quarries of com-
mon minerals (chalk, clay, sand) on an area of about
1.5 thousand hectares. Among the study subjects in the
Fedor Lisetskii
KMA region, there are mine dumps of various types:
excavating, car dumps, hydro dumps, where was not
carried out reclamation by applying a fertile soil layer.
The KMA region is located in the forest-steppe, where
the climate is moderately continental with an average
annual temperature of 5.4 °C, and an annual precipita-
tion of 616 mm.
The objects of steppe region study were the aban-
doned settlements territories and earth mounds of World
War II in the so-called belligerent landscapes. The steppe
study area is located 700 km south-west of KMA and
here the climate is very arid with mild winter, and the
average annual temperature is higher by 4.6 °C and an
annual precipitation is less by 275 mm.
Data used: The empirical basis of the study rests on the
previously created databases in MS Access format, which
contain author’s pedochronological data (morphology,
properties) in forest-steppe and steppe soils (numbers of
security documents RU2010620190 and RU2016621001,
respectively). The computer program, which is a data-
base management system (DBMS) of the different-aged
soils, allowed selecting data with comparable history.
The objects of study in 2003-2016 were young different-
aged soils (30-70 years old) and their parent rocks in the
Belgorod region (KMA) and Steppe Crimea. If in the KMA
forest-steppe area the study subjects are mining dumps
that for 32-35 years have passed restoration, then in the
steppe region, these landscapes age 68-73 years, which
are formed on the destroyed lands as a result of the ter-
mination of human activity lands (abandoned sites, hills
of ash, military trenches). Survey targets comparison in
two regions reveals the role of bioclimatic conditions
and the signi cant differences in the chemical composi-
tion of parent rocks.
Methods: The rate of humus horizon formation (accu-
mulative (A) and transitional (AB)) is taken as a rela-
tive indicator of soil formation effectiveness. The choice
of an adequate mathematical model was based on the
assumption that the model should re ect the rate of
pedogenesis gradual deceleration, corresponding to the
established organic matter equilibrium in the maximum
concentration zone of soil biota in the renaturation hori-
zon. Therefore, we chose the group of S-shaped growth
models and in particular, a Gompertz function. Licensed
software STATISTICA 10.0 was used for the modelling
of the changes in the thickness of humus horizon (sum
of A and AB, if it is formed). Chemical analyses for soil
horizons A and AB included the following standard pro-
cedures: the content of CO
in carbonates measured by
acidometry, bulk nitrogen content (N) as determined by
Kjeldahl’s procedure, and pH
The determination of Corg in the soil was performed
by oxidation of the organic substance with a solution
in sulfuric acid until the formation of carbon
dioxide. The quality of the organic substance can be
estimated based on the atomic ratio of C:N, which char-
acterizes the degree of nitrogen enrichment of humus:
if C:N < 5, then very high, if C:N < 14, then very low.
Most of the humus horizons of the zonal-genetic row
have a high and medium degree of enrichment of humus
with nitrogen at C:N ratio of about 5-8 and 8-10, respec-
tively. If using the index Corg for every 10 mm of soil
thickness (C/10 mm), then the data is comparable in the
analysis of individual objects. This is due to the fact
that after the initial accumulation of soil organic matter
in horizon A with the highest concentration of roots,
the humus is moved down the pro le as the pedogen-
esis time increases. Concentration of 22 macroelements
and trace elements within the soils were determined
by technique of measuring metals mass fraction and
oxides in powder samples using the method of X-ray
uorescence analysis on the spectrometer (Spectroscan
Max-GV). With weathering of iron-containing miner-
als, amorphous iron compounds are formed, which were
extracted by Tamm’s reagent (oxalate buffer solution
O) with pH=3). Soil colours
(dry and moist) were described using the Munsell color
system (Munsell, 1994).
Renaturation of the soil-plant cover
Land reclamation involves the application of a fertile
soil layer on a post-technogenic surface. However, when
applying the layer of minimum thickness (15 cm), the
payback period (upon the return of the used land to
arable land) with the increasing delivery distance using
scrapers from 300 to 1000 m will increase from 3 to 7
years. The land reclamation in the KMA is not carried
out in due scope due to the lack of  nancial resources
and insuf cient technical equipment of mining compa-
nies. The annual increase in the area of destroyed land is
comparable to the area of land, where reclamation was
carried out. Therefore, Belgorod Oblast needs more than
100 years to fully reclamation of all disturbed lands, if
the same reclamation rates continue in the future. The
reclamation biological stage economic costs during for-
mation of the post-technogenic landscape can be sig-
ni cantly reduced by controlling the restoration process.
Therefore, it is necessary to use the results of empiri-
cal studies that will allow selecting the most effective
restoration trajectories and self-sustaining native eco-
system restoration. The soil-plant cover renaturation is a
complex ensemble of natural reproduction processes of
the biotic and abiotic geosystems components and the
anthropogenic geosystem natural evolution, in which
Fedor Lisetskii
the economic activity was completed. A characteristic
feature of technogenic geosystems is the high heteroge-
neity of their lithological base made of rocks that were
moved in mine dump using the dry method or in the
slurry form in the hydraulic  lling process. And it is
important to point out that these rocks belong to differ-
ent geological formations and are often not parent rock
for soil cover of the background landscapes.
In polycomponent technogenic mixtures, their envi-
ronmental favourableness for renaturation is determined
by the rocks ratio and, as a result of their mixing; the
emergent properties of technogenic substrates appear.
The morphology of the newly formed soil pro les of the
technogenic landscapes strongly depends on the par-
ent rock type. The soil pro le is best formed in loamy
and sandy-loamy rocks, soils on sands, clays, chalk
and dense crystalline rocks are less developed. The bio-
geochemical cycle plays a determining role in the soil
reproduction, including the process of complexes with
organic residues, their transformation, mineralization,
and humi cation (Lisetskii, 2012). Loamy soils better  x
the organic matter.
With renaturation, aggregation processes are under-
way and the structure provides optimal water-air and
microbiological regimes and favourable conditions for
nutrient entry into the plants, improves anti-erosive
soil stability in dif cult terrain conditions (Bulygin and
Lisetskiy, 1992). Biocenoses regeneration in ecotopes
with a favourable substrate for the settlement of higher
plants occurs at an accelerated rate, which determines
the most active transformation of the mineral part
within the rhizosphere area, where maximum organic
matter accumulation is observed. Therefore, the maxi-
mum humus horizon formation rate (1.5-2 mm yr
) was
noted with a soil aged of about 30 years.
Soil restoration on the mine dumps
In the forest-steppe, the results of renaturation postin-
dustrial mine dump after 32-35 years (Table 1) are char-
acterized by the following indicators of pedogenesis: the
thickness of humus horizon is 43.3 ± 2.9 mm, the content
of humus reaches 3.42 ± 0.29%, N = 0.26 ± 0.02%. These
fertility indicators are formed under conditions when the
content of Fe is 1.50 ± 0.30%, the soil solutions have a
medium alkaline reaction (pH
= 8.24 ± 0.07), which is
due to the carbonate content (CO
= 3.69 ± 0.73%).
With renaturation postindustrial mine dumps, the
processes of humus horizon formation and humus syn-
chronously accumulates in the  rst three-four decades
as a whole. Soils reproduction in technogenic landscapes
under conditions of mine dumps overgrowth with over-
burden rocks occurs under rather extreme conditions;
however, in most cases by the age of 30-40 years’ young
soils have a well-de ned morphological pro le.
Table 1: Basic indicators of primary pedogenesis in renaturation postindustrial mine dumps in forest-steppe conditions
Age (t) PR
, Number
Horizon H, mm
Munsell color
moist dry
, % Fe, % Corg C:N
Vh, mm
Vc, %
mm, %
35 LM PE 15 A 16±0.3 10YR3/2 10YR4/2 4.50 0.31 3.07 7
AB 29±1 10YR3/3 10YR4.5/2 4.27 0.23 1.91 8 0.83 0.07 0.88
HG 43 A 23±1 10YR3/2 10YR3/3 2.00 0.76 3.07 11
AB 51±1 10YR2/2 10YR3/2 2.10 0.69 2.32 10 1.55 0.08 0.52
7 35 RF CM 26 A+AB 52±2 10YR2.5/2 10YR4/3 3.52 0.56 1.92 13 1.49 0.05 0.37
8 35 RF + LM CE 26 A 35±1 10YR3/1.5 10YR3/2 4.38 0.42 2.24 13
AB 74±1 10YR3/3 10YR3/2 3.94 0.50 1.26 7 2.11 0.05 0.23
9 34 RF W+G 15 A+AB 31±0.4 7.5YR3/3 5YR4/3 1.58 3.70 1.94 8 0.91 0.06 0.63
34 RF + LL C+MA 6 A 27±1 10YR2.5/2 10YR3/3 1.08 2.10 2.98 12
AB 81±2 10YR2.5/2 10YR4/3 0.81 2.65 2.40 6 2.38 0.08 0.46
11 32 Sca PA 16 A+AB 56±2 2.5YR6/3 2.5Y7/2 12.08 0.05 2.27 81 1.75 0.07 0.41
Parent Rocks: LM, Loam Medium; LL, Light Loam; RF, Rock (Ferruginous); Sca, Carbonate Sand.
Vegetation Communities: PE, Poa-Euphorbia community; HG, Heterogeneous group
(43 species of different coenotypes); CM, Calamagrostis-Medicago association; CE, Calamagrostis-Elytrigia community; W+G, Woody vegetation (5 species) and a rare grassy tier; C+MA, Cornus
sangguinea and Medicago-Achillea community; PA, Poa-Artemisia grouping.
Fedor Lisetskii
The greatest development among soil genetic hori-
zons is obtained by humus – accumulative (A) and tran-
sitional (AB or AC (in the early stages)) horizons. The
dependence of the total thickness (A+AB(AC)) of humus
horizon (H (t), mm) on the time (t, years) in the early
stage of pedogenesis in the technogenic landscapes of
the forest-steppe has the form: H (t) = 200 exp (–exp
(0.923-0.025 t)). Using this model, it was found that
the average rate of humus horizon formation of Cher-
nozem-like soils (Vh) in the  rst 35 years is 2.00 mm
.However, in the various substrates and phytocenotic
conditions of the technogenic landscapes, signi cant
differences in Vh (n = 22) from 0.83 to 2.38 mm yr
are noted with a coef cient of 36% variation. During
this same time, the average rate of Corg accumulation
is 1.86 ± 0.15% with a coef cient of 38% variation. As
shown in Table 1, with the exception of soil on sands, all
other soils when achieving an average content of Corg =
2.2% acquire a characteristic soil colour (dry) dark gray-
ish brown (10YR4/2).
The maximum growth rates of the humus horizon
thickness were noted, when rocks (Ferruginous) were
mixed with loams, although the plant cover features were
not a factor of pedogenesis rate differentiation. Never-
theless, the presence of woody vegetation (such as Cor-
nus sangguinea) stimulated both soil growth downwards
and Corg accumulation with a high degree of humus
enrichment with nitrogen. As shown earlier (Goleusov,
2003), in the forest-steppe conditions, there are no sig-
ni cant differences in the pedogenesis ef ciency under
grass and tree vegetation in the early stages of renatura-
tion, but at a later stage, the organic carbon accumula-
tion rate in grassy communities becomes higher.
High Corg accumulation rates do not depend on the
content of carbonates in parent rock and they are not
hindered by the increased content amorphous Fe in
the rocks of mining dumps. The lowest rates of Corg
accumulation were noted on ferruginous rock and more
favourable parent rocks (loam and loamy sand) were a
more signi cant factor pedogenesis, than the diversity
of plant species and type of vegetation. The high degree
of humus enrichment with nitrogen (C:N=5-8) is always
accompanied by high rates of humus horizon (Vh), but
the ratio C:N=8 was also noted in cases where the maxi-
mum values of C/10 mm were recorded.
At the quartzite mine dumps (KMA), vegetation in
the early stages of recovery is very poor, but at the foot
of the slopes where the meadow-steppe vegetation with
ruderal species concentration, 58 species of plants are
noted (Kornilov et al., 2008). At the age of young geo-
systems from 35 to 50 years and beyond, there comes
a stage of sustainable geosystems operation where the
structure and regeneration processes stabilize. The rate
of soil reproduction decreases; the species composition
in a phytocenosis gradually stabilizes; the share of rud-
eral species decreases.
Soil restoration on the abandoned sites
With mechanical destructions of land and the human
activity termination, semi-natural landscapes (post-set-
tlement, forti cation, etc.) were formed with a variety of
conditions on lithology and vegetation composition. In
such conditions (Table 2), with an arid steppe climate,
the average rate of humus horizon formation (Vh) for
the  rst 70 years ranged from 1.1 to 2.3 mm yr
a variation coef cient of 28%. During the same time,
the average rate of Corg accumulation was 0.04% yr
with a variation coef cient of 23%, i.e. is identical to
the accumulation of carbon on mine dumps KMA. In this
way, judging by the values of the indicator C/10 mm, the
pedogenesis ef ciency (with respect to the accumulation
of organic substance in a comparable thickness) during
renaturation of the postindustrial mine dumps (0.50%
on 10 mm) compared with the usual mechanical viola-
tions of land in the steppe zone was twice as high.This
is due to the higher bioclimatic potential of renatura-
tion conditions, which was typical for mining facilities
of KMA in the forest-steppe. Consequently, we can note
the higher species diversity and vegetation productivity
during the overgrowth of mine dumps, despite the lesser
age of ecosystems restoration in the forest-steppe com-
pared with the steppe. In comparison with the young
forest-steppe soil, colour is lighter in the steppe soils,
which is mainly determined by the presence of such par-
ent rock as ash.
Table 2 includes only the nine macroelements and
trace elements that belong to the group “plant nutrients”,
and among them there are those that showed a signi -
cant variation (V>20%) among the subjects studied. A
comparison of the soil quality values that were obtained
by calculating the geometric means for nine indicators
(Table 2) showed that the richest soil (in biogeochemical
terms) was formed in seven decades under conditions,
when the parent rock was ash, although the plant cover
was not characterized by maturity and diversity. Scenar-
ios of ecological renaturation pathways are more diverse
under overgrowth conditions of the postindustrial mine
dumps in comparison with the restoration of the aban-
doned sites (settlements and forti cation objects). It can
be assumed that this is facilitated by more favourable
climatic conditions of the forest steppe in comparison
with the steppe. Moreover, the narrower scope of imple-
mented pathways of renaturation of steppe ecosystems
is due to the greater in uence of adjacent ecosystems
due to their territorial proximity. The important role of
habitats-sources for the successions acceleration was
shown in the de nition of the kurgans vital role in
steppe restoration (Deák et al., 2016). In areas where the
Fedor Lisetskii
Table 2. Features of the chemical composition of soils formed during the  rst 70 years in the conditions of the steppe
Object S1/1 S1/2 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 Average
T yrs 70 70 70 68 68 73 73
Horizon, depth mm A, 0-162 AB,162-280 A, 0-95 A, 0-93 A, 0-122 A, 0-81 A, 0-98
Munsell color dry 10YR 6/2 10YR 6/2 10YR 7/3.5 10YR 5/3 10YR 7/3 10YR 6/3.5 10YR 5/2.5
Corg % 3.29 2.59 3.46 2.66 2.16 1.98 2.43 2.65
% 1.33 1.39 0.28 0.15 0.21 0.30 0.49 0.59
O % 3.00 3.32 1.84 1.90 1.23 1.10 1.83 2.03
Fe % 2.15 2.08 2.00 3.10 1.62 1.47 1.92 2.05
% 45.8 44.6 37.7 46.3 20.0 21.6 34.0 35.71
CaO % 16.9 17.7 21.8 6.5 36.0 28.1 16.5 20.51
MgO % 2.5 2.5 2.3 1.3 3.3 2.8 1.9 2.38
Cu ppm 20.8 21.4 24.7 43.1 35.0 38.9 42.1 32.29
Zn ppm 143.8 123.6 72.0 81.6 67.9 59.6 78.1 89.51
Vh mm yr
2.31 1.36 1.37 1.79 1.11 1.34 1.55
Vc % yr
0.05 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.04
C/10 mm % 0.20 0.36 0.29 0.18 0.24 0.25 0.25
Parent Rock: BL, Building Layer; A, Ash; T, Ejection Parent Rock (Trenches).
Vegetation: W, Weeds; C, Cer eals; HG, Herb-Grass; GMG, Grassy-
Motley Grass; MG, Motley Grass. Ppm = mg kg
ratio of natural habitats is high, we can expect a fast
recovery of semi-natural habitats (Valkó et al., 2017).
The type and geochemistry of parent rock are the deter-
mining factors of pedogenesis and makes the main con-
tribution to the soil properties variation that is close in
age. Young ecosystems, that were formed in a variety
of conditions (relief, lithology, climate, vegetation),
through the environmental factor amplitude of oscil-
lations could, in the self-organization process, enter
one, but a development pathways spectrum, since they
had many degrees of freedom. The range of the envi-
ronmental renaturation ef ciency in the forest-steppe
under the recent pedogenesis conditions in postindus-
trial mine dumps is diagnosed to the greatest extent by
the Corg/10 mm index and Vh is inferior to it. The small
differences (with varying types of rocks and vegetation)
are typical for the average rate of Corg accumulation.
In the steppe zone, the range of values is less than in
the forest-steppe and the manifestations of the processes
that are re ected in indicators C/10 mm and Vh and the
average rate of Corg accumulation is inferior to them.
Thereby, in various bioclimatic conditions, indicators
of the pedogenesis ef ciency on renaturation post-
technogenic and of conventional mechanical disorder
lands manifest themselves in a similar way. This allows
using the comprehensive technology of controlled rena-
turation of the disturbed lands. We attribute this type of
renaturation to irrecoverable conservation, whose goal
is to form the most “scarce” ecosystems with the selec-
tion of tolerant species, the creation of natural reserves
and the badlands aesthetic rehabilitation. It is necessary
to provide system solutions, since environmental rena-
turation in post mining sites includes stabilization of the
relief, primary and recent pedogenesis, self-puri cation
of natural environments (restoration of the geochemi-
cal balance), primary and regenerative biota successions
(revitalization of anthropogenic surfaces), intercompo-
nent geosystem interactions restoration.
The work was done in the framework of the implementa-
tion of the base part of the state assignment of the Min-
istry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation
for the Belgorod State National Research University on
2017-2019 years (project No. 5.4711.2017/6.7).
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contamination of land ll soil of Meshgin city using index of
geoaccumulation and contamination factor. Bioscience Bio-
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