Biosci. Biotech. Res. Comm. 11(2): 313-317 (2018)
Quality assessment of milk samples of Amreli region
with nanotechnology based dipstick and other known
technology: A comparative study
Rakesh B Kabariya
and Vimal M Ramani
Department of Dairy Microbiology, College of Dairy Science, Kamdhenu University, Amreli, Gujarat, India
Milk is important source of nutrient required for the growth human. It is very common to adulterate the milk in sup-
plying chain by the local vendors. This present study is try to explain the hygienic status of milk in Amreli district.
Total 100 milk samples were collected from the different region of Amreli district and checked for the presence of
urea, detergent, neutralizer and hydrogen peroxide. All the samples were assess by our newly developed nanotech-
nology based dipstick and REIL EMAT plus for comparative purpose. Later on statistical analysis was also carried out
from the obtained result data. Out of 100 collected milk sample, the extent of adulteration is varying from hydrogen
peroxide (0 %) to urea (12 %). Due to the malpractice in milk, consumer must aware of this malpractice and they have
to be more active and aggressive against the milk adulteration.
*Corresponding Author:
Received 16
April, 2018
Accepted after revision 18
June, 2018
BBRC Print ISSN: 0974-6455
Online ISSN: 2321-4007 CODEN: USA BBRCBA
Thomson Reuters ISI ESC / Clarivate Analytics USA and
Crossref Indexed Journal
NAAS Journal Score 2018: 4.31 SJIF 2017: 4.196
© A Society of Science and Nature Publication, Bhopal India
2018. All rights reserved.
Online Contents Available at: http//
DOI: 10.21786/bbrc/11.1/18
Milk is an important source of nutrient required for
growth in infants and children and for maintenance of
health in adults. Milk is a perfect food, readily digested
and absorbed. It is a sole natural food for infants and
children. Milk contains more than 100 substances that
are either in solution suspension or emulsion in water,
the important being casein - the major protein of milk,
lactose - milk sugar, whey and mineral salts. From past
few year with the increase of living standard of people
and advance technology, there is signi cantly increased
in milk and milk product consumption. Though it is very
common in dairy industry to adulterating milk and other
dairy product for the cost-cutting purpose or increase
the life of dairy product. Addition of such adulterant in
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milk decrease the nutrient value, its quality and  avor
and may also cause harm full effect on human health,
Karukonda et al. (2017) and Brindha et al. (2017).
According to the report of Food Safety Standard
Authority of India (FSSAI, 2016), in India about 68.4%
of milk is adulterated with different adulterants. The
common adulterants which can be mixed with milk are
starch, urea, hydrogen peroxide, boric acid, detergent,
neutralizer, and maltodextrin and ammonium sulphate.
These all adulterants mixed with milk for the cost cut-
ting purpose. Consumption of adulterated milk can
cause the several health hazardous in both infant and in
adult, sometimes it can prove to be fetal, (Makadiya and
Pandey 2015).
We have developed innovative method for the instant
detection of adulterants in milk. Our developed tech-
nique is nanotechnology based dipstick which is quite
reliable, portable, instantaneous, cheap, require very low
amount of milk sample for the testing. Apart from this,
nanotechnology based dipstick can be used at house
hold level and it doesn’t require any skilled person to
handle it. Presence or absence of particular adulterant in
milk sample can be detect within second by this dipstick.
We have developed total eight individual dipstick for
the instant detection of starch, urea, hydrogen perox-
ide, detergent, neutralizer, maltodextrin and ammonium
Unique Selling Point (USP) of our newly developed
dipstick is ease of use and instantaneous result. These
both the property are very useful for common man to
utilize this dipstick for detection of adulterants at house
hold level as well as at village cooperative also which is
the  rst entry point of milk collection chain. This dip-
stick is very simple in which detector pad is adhere at
the lower end and reference color tag is adhere at the
middle of dipstick. Detector pad of dipstick is dip into
milk and if color of detector pad is changed as same as
reference color tag, the presence of particular adulter-
ants is con rm.
Public consume  uid milk which has been adulter-
ated and diluted to an extent that there is very little
nutritive value left in it resulting to a great extent to
general public health concerns and malnutrition Quasid,
et al. (2007). Keeping in view the above facts, the present
study was conducted to achieve the following objec-
tives: To determine the chemical composition of the milk
available in local market. To check the hygienic status
of market milk. To detect various adulterants in market
milk following the method of Rajesh et al. (2016).
In this article we have try to explore the comparative
analysis between our newly developed nanotechnology
based dipstick and standard instrument based technique.
We have compare our result with REIL EMAT PLUS (Milk
adulteration testing instrument) developed and patented
by CSIR & CEERI technology, India. REIL EMAT PLUS
is able to detect the presence of hydrogen peroxide,
neutralizer, detergent and urea. In this article we have
compare our newly developed nanotechnology based
dipstick with REIL EMET plus for the detection of hydro-
gen peroxide, neutralizer, detergent and urea. Generated
data from the result were analyzed to check the speci c-
ity, accuracy and sensitivity of dipstick compare to REIL
EMAT plus and statistical analysis was carried out with
help of Medcalc software.
A total 100 of milk samples were collected from different
talukas viz. Babra, Liliya, Dhari, Savar Kundla, Rajula
and Bagasara of Amreli district and were preserved at
- 4°C temperature in refrigerators. The samples were col-
lected in 100 ml screw capped sterilized plastic bottles.
All the possible precautions were taken to avoid external
contamination at the time of collection of samples and
during processing Baharullah, et al. (2013). Milk samples
were collected in clean, dry and neatly labelled sample
containers and transported to laboratory in cold chain.
The milk samples were tested for the following adul-
terants urea, neutralizers (NaHCO
, Na2CO
, NaOH, etc.),
detergents, hydrogen peroxide, (Singuluri and Suku-
maran 2014).
Collected milk samples were analyzed for the pres-
ence or absence of different milk adulterant from group
of hydrogen peroxide, neutralizer, urea and detergent.
First our developed nanotechnology based dipstick were
dipped into the milk sample and check for the presence/
absence of adulterants and then same milk sample was
analyzed with help of REIL EMAT plus and compare. Later
statistical analysis was carried out to check the speci c-
ity, accuracy and sensitivity. In statistical analysis, the
comparison of sensitivity, speci city and accuracy of dip-
stick were compared with standard instrument by using
Medcalc software version 13.1 and Medcalc software was
basically worked upon the Wilson intervals method.
All these hundred samples were analyzed for the presence
of adulterants with the help of our innovative nanotech-
nology based dipstick and REIL EMAT plus standard milk
adulteration testing instrument. The color of all milk sam-
ples were observed creamy white in appearance, texture
of milk samples were smooth and oily and odour of milk
samples were characteristics pleasant and milky.
Collected sample were analyzed to check the pres-
ence/absence of different adulterant from group of
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FIGURE 1. Innovative nanotechnology based dipstick
FIGURE 2. REIL EMAT plus standard milk
adulteration testing instrument
Table 1. Shows the total number of positive and negative different adulterant in milk
Sr. No Name of Adulterants Number of collected samples Positive Negative
1 Urea 100 12 88
2 Detergent 100 8 92
3 Neutralizer 100 8 92
4 Hydrogen peroxide 100 0 100
hydrogen peroxide, neutralizer, urea and detergent. Out
of 100 collected milk samples, 28 sample were found to
be adulterated with different milk adulterant from the
group of hydrogen peroxide, detergent, neutralizer and
urea. While checking the presence or absence of adulter-
ants by our innovative dipstick, it was found that 12%,
8% and 8% out of 100 milk samples have been adulter-
ated with urea, detergent and neutralizer respectively.
While no sample was found to be adulterated with
hydrogen peroxide. Again same milk sample was ana-
lyzed by standard milk adulteration testing instrument
REIL EMAT plus and same result was found which was
found by our innovative dipstick. Table- 1indicate the
data of positive and negative adulteration detection in
milk collected sample from the Amreli region. Figure 3
shows the percentage wise presence or absence of differ-
ent adulterants in milk samples.
Fig.3 shows that 12 %, 8 %, 8 % milk was found to be
adulterated with urea, detergent and neutralizer respec-
tively while no sample was adulterated with hydrogen
Urea added with milk to increase the witness of milk,
increase consistency and also for the balancing of con-
tent of Solid-Non-fat (SNF) as present in natural milk.
Result obtain from comparative analysis of our study,
12 % of milk sample were found to be adulterated with
urea while result obtain by Singuluri and Sukumaran
(2014) was 60%. Our result is comparatively lower than
them. The mixing of urea in milk lead to the overload
the function of kidney as they have to  lter out more
amount of urea from the body. This may lead to the
renal failure and impaired vision. Apart from this, urea
may also disturb the function of liver and heart.
Another most widely used milk adulterant is deter-
gent. It is used to emulsify and dissolve the oil in water
and giving frothy solution, the characteristic white color
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of milk. Result obtained from the above comparative
study, 8 % milk sample were shown positive for deter-
gent. Our result is lower compare to result obtained by
Swetha et al. (2014). In their result 14 % milk sample
were found to be adulterated with detergent. Addition
of detergent in milk can cause the gastrointestinal com-
plication. The two major component of detergent, octyl-
phenol and nonylphenol can cause the breast cancer and
also decrease the sperm production from testis.
Hydrogen peroxide is added in milk for the long term
preservation and freshness of milk. Result obtained from
our comparative study, no single milk sample was adul-
terated with hydrogen peroxide while result obtained by
Singuluri and Sukumaran (2014) 32 % milk sample were
shown positive for the hydrogen peroxide. Our result is
opposite then them. Long term consumption of hydrogen
peroxide can damages the cells of gastro intestinal track
which can ultimately cause the gastritis and in amma-
tion of the intestine. Neutralizer added in milk can help
to neutralize the acidity developed in milk. Consumption
of neutralizer containing milk can disturb the hormonal
signaling. Result obtained from our comparative, 8 % of
milk sample shows the positive test for the presence of
neutralizer in milk. Brindha et al. (2017) also did same
analysis and they got 20 % of the milk sample shows the
positive result for neutralizer. Our result is lower than
Medcalc software was performed using ROC (Receiver
Operating Characteristic) curve analysis and AUC (Area
Under curves) analysis. A ROC curve shows the sensi-
tivity and speci city whereas Area Under curve (AUC)
shows an index of accuracy. The ROC curve has been
prepared by using Medcalc software for four differ-
ent adulterant. If the value of AUC is 1 or closer to 1
then dipstick has same accuracy compare to standard
compared instrument. Four different adulterants, i.e.
hydrogen peroxide, neutralizer, urea and detergent with
standard instrument REIL EMAT plus. After statistical
analysis and based on ROC curve, AUC value of these
four adulterant were found 1.0 while 95% con dence
interval (CI) was 0.996 to 1.0. If the value of AUC was 1
or closer to 1 then dipstick have same accuracy compare
to standard instrument. ROC curve indicate the 100%
speci city and sensitivity. Hence, our nanotechnology
based dipstick is excellent as compared to standard
instrument (REIL EMAT plus).
In a country such as India where milk and milk prod-
ucts play an important role in different foodstuffs, this
analysis carried out should bring about more aware-
ness to the general public about the malpractices in
milk marketing. On the basis of data obtain from the
above result it is conclude that quality of milk sample is
not as per the standard and milk adulteration is still in
practice. Consumption of lower quality milk may lead to
serious human health problems. To eradicate this mal-
practice by local wanders which is deep rooted in the
cities more than rural areas, steps should be taken from
the door steps of local consumers. The consumers must
be more active against milk adulteration going on in
whole country. It is important to have a quality control
FIGURE 3. Adulterants pro le in milk
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system that regularly check and ensure that only good
quality milk is sold. The consumers and the milk sellers
combined effort will help to decrease the adulteration
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