Biosci. Biotech. Res. Comm. 11(2): 251-255 (2018)
Inventorization of electronic waste management,
engaging with consumption: A Survey in Bhopal
Somi Khan*
and Savita Vyas
Research Scholar School of Energy & Environment Management, Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya,
Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, 462033 India
Associate Professor School of Energy & Environment Management, Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya,
Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, 462033 India
The existing practices of electronic waste in India suffer manyproblems like the dif culty in inventorization, legisla-
tion, poor awareness of electronic waste management and unhealthy conditions of informal recycling. The study was
focused on inventories of e-waste in Bhopal city which is in the capital of the state and generates a database for the
future plan and provide statistical data affecting the generation of E-Waste in Bhopal as well as prepare an inventory
of electronic waste. This can help to prepare an action plan for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment which can
be formulated and give a quantitative and qualitative analysis of WEEE generation in Bhopal City. The main objective
of the study inventorization of seven electronic sub-sectors like refrigerators, mobile phones, television computers,
air conditioners, washing machines and waste batteries in Bhopal city of the state. The present practices of electronic
and electrical waste of management having many drawbacks like unhealthy conditions of informal recycling, the
dif culty in inventorization, poor awareness inadequate legislation, these are the critical issues, during the site visit
interviews total 120 questionnaires were collected, 50 questionnaires business entities and 70 from household and
collect 432MT e-waste during the survey.
*Corresponding Author: somikhan363@gmail.com
Received 3
April, 2018
Accepted after revision 19
June, 2018
BBRC Print ISSN: 0974-6455
Online ISSN: 2321-4007 CODEN: USA BBRCBA
Thomson Reuters ISI ESC / Clarivate Analytics USA and
Crossref Indexed Journal
NAAS Journal Score 2018: 4.31 SJIF 2017: 4.196
© A Society of Science and Nature Publication, Bhopal India
2018. All rights reserved.
Online Contents Available at: http//www.bbrc.in/
DOI: 10.21786/bbrc/11.1/9
Somi Khan and Savita Vyas
Electronic waste management becomes burning issue
all over the world, because growth in demand and con-
sumption of electronic goods had led huge amount of
waste and this waste become a new type of waste called
electronic waste. So there is dire need to adopt sustain-
able practices so that we can handle a waste, (Schwarzer
2005). Electronic Waste, as the name represent, com-
prises of electronic and electrical equipment such as
computers, cell phones and other electrical devices
which are destined for recycling or disposal, (Robinson
2009). The amount of electronic dump generated glob-
ally has been estimated to reach about 72 billion tons
annually by 2017, (Bisschop 2014).
E-waste informal processing sitescan be located near
agricultural  elds and other cropland where heavymet-
als and other contaminate can penetrate into the soil
where food isgrown, (Song and Li 2014). Human expo-
sure to halogenated  ame retardants (HFR) overdermal
adsorption by skin wipe. Dermal absorption would be
animportant exposure route for HFR. Liu et al. (2017).
Developing countries leading the pack in accepting
electronic waste since thedeveloped world today include
China, India, Pakistan, and Nigeria, (Garlapati 2016).
The electrical and electronic equipment’s are largely
classi ed into three parts as:- comprising of household
usages like air conditioners, refrigerators and dishwashers,
washing machines are ‘white goods,’ computers, printers,
fax machines, scanners, etc are’; ‘grey goods,’ compris-
ing of TVs, camcorders, cameras are ‘brown goods, Sinha
(2007). PCBs, dioxins, and heavy metals in their essential
forms, Lead, Nickel, Cadmium and Lithium are found in
used batteries, abundant the ones being massproducedin
electric vehicles. Organophosphate  ame retardants and
plasticizers in urine example of the people living in an
e-wastedismantling site (Lin et al., (2017).
Despitethe risk of many developing countries do not
have proper regulationsand policies in place to protect
the local people and environment. Example, in Nige-
ria exquisite metals are removed from circuit boardsby
using acid, and then dumping them onto the ground or
into streams, (Kiddee et al., 2013).
The University of the Negev researchers used cath-
oderay tube exhibit the  nancial incentive system. The-
proper recycling facilities would offer a higher price for
the CRTs thatcould be earned thru the informal recyclers
manually dismantling them.This would provide motiva-
tion for the informal recyclers totake the collected CRTs
to the formal sector to go through recycling.These mate-
rial incentives encourage a relationship between thein-
formal and formal sectors, (Davis and Garb, 2015).
‘Meeting the needs of the present generations with-
out compromising the capacity of upcoming generations
to meet their own needs by Hester et al., (2012). Faster
obsolescence and subsequent up-gradation of electron-
ics product, are forcing consumers to discard old prod-
ucts, which in turn accumulate huge e-waste to the solid
waste stream, (Bhat and Patil, 2014).
Informal recycling practices: preferably, all electronic
waste should be recycledinformal recycling facilities.
However, because of the formal electronic wastefacili-
ties are costly to operate construct as well as, especially
in lessdeveloped countries, informal recycling sites are
prevalent. Theinformal e-waste sector consists of sites
that excerpt the valuable parts of the electronics and
electrical equipment using crude recycling and disposal
methods usuallywithout any kind of shelter equipment
such as goggles or gloves or theassistance of technology,
(An et al. 2015).
Technological innovations and intense marketing
engender a rapid replacement process, the Basel Con-
vention, which is reduction of Tran’s boundary move-
ments of hazardous and other wastes including the
minimization and prevention of their generation, the
environmentally sound management of such wastes and
transfer as well as use of technologies. Sthiannopkaoand
Wong (2013).
A Draft Strategic Plan has been proposed for the
implementation of the Basel Convention, The Draft Stra-
tegic Plan takes into account existing regional plans,
strategies or programs, the decisions of the Conference
of the Parties and its subsidiary bodies, ongoing pro-
ject activities and process of international environmen-
tal governance and sustainable development and also
calls the management and effective involvement by
all concerned stakeholders essential for the aims of the
Basel Declaration within the approach. Of interrelated
and equally support strategies are proposed to support
the concrete implementation of the activities as indi-
cated1989 in the website( http://www.basel.int/).
The study of electronic waste was conducted in Bhopal
cities which is one of the biggest city, located in Madhya
Pradesh. The electronic waste generators and business
entities, household, institutions are the consumers of the
electronic and electrical equipment’s they were targeted
in this study the survey location is based on the socio-
economic status of the area as well as population den-
sity of Bhopal.The population of Bhopal metropolitan
area that extends beyond Bhopal city was 1,886,100. The
total effective literacy rate was 85.24%, with male and
female literacy respectively at 89.2% and 80.1%accord-
ing to Census in 2011 next will be held on 2021.
Somi Khan and Savita Vyas
Field data were collected through the questionnaire-
based survey; paper studies of their of cial sites give
a better result than mail survey. The study was targeted
following categories of electronic and electrical equip-
ment such as televisions, mobile phones, personal com-
puters air conditioners, refrigerators, washing machines
for quanti cations and estimations of e-waste produced,
we collecteddata from the government of ce, household
private sectors second-hand shops.
E-mail is the most useful method for collecting data a
standardized e-mail was attached to the questionnaire so
that it would attract the recipient to read the email and
participate in answering the questionnaire.
the land lling, which produces toxic element, like cad-
mium lead mercury into the atmosphere ground and soil
releases negative impact.
The average weight of the television is 36.2 kg, dur-
ing the survey,  nd that total around 8952 televisions
were used, since last 5 years the generation of electronic
waste is approximate 2173 kg so the yearly generation
1644 kg/year.
FIGURE 1. Map of Bhopal city
FIGURE 2. Average Weight Of the
A Computer is an electronic device which contains many
toxic components such as mercury PCBs, CRT chromium,
and cadmium. A Monitor having 6% lead which is dan-
gerous for our health as well as affects our environment
generally, electrical and electronic equipment is sent to
FIGURE 3. Discarded E-Waste
FIGURE 4. Electronic waste
Total of 9374 refrigerators are in use, and according to
respondents most of the refrigerators have an average
lifespan of 10-12 years. Maximum discarded refrigera-
tors are used for exchange purposes to buy new refrig-
erator so the yearly generation is 13256.77 kg/year.
Somi Khan and Savita Vyas
On an average it is found that in every two household,
one number of AC is being possessed by the respond-
ent, brand new air conditioners were found to be used
for a long time. Maximum respondents have discarded
their air conditioner by exchange offer only and few
respondents have given to scraping dealer, total 1123 air
conditioners are used so the e-waste yearly generation
is 14.23kg/year.
Total 7543 washing machines are used on an averageand
it is found that each household respondent possessed
one number of washing machines. Brand new washing
machinewas found to be used for a long time. Many
respondents have discarded their washing machine
either by exchange offers or by giving to scrap dealer so
the e -waste yearly generation is 5389kg/year.
FIGURE 5. Source of electronic waste
Home Hospital Government
Pc pc Fax machine Boiler
Fan ECG device Xerox machine Mixture
Fridge Microscope Scanner Incubator
Incubator Fan Fan
Refrigerator fan Tube lights etc.
CD player etc. Air conditioner
Reduction of volume
Method which subtract the hazardous parts of waste
materials from non-hazardous parts, includes in volume
reduction these methodsare basically use for capacity
reduction also price of deposing of e-waste also reduce
waste steam capacity and divided into two parts:-
• Waste concentration
• Source segregation
The technique for waste reduction can be simple and
economical by segregation of wastes. Different types of
metal are present in a waste material can be treated sim-
ply which can improve the metal value of sludge. Waste
can be recycled by the technique of vacuum  ltration
also gravity or inverse osmosis or ultra- ltration etc.
Table 1. Total generation of batteries
S. No Total Generation of
1 Average Weight 30 kg
2 Total Usage of Batteries
in no.
3 E-Waste of Batteries in
Last 5 years in no.
4 Yearly Batteries
Generation in KG
5 Batteries generation in MT 8.94 mt/year
Table 2. Total Generation of Air-Conditioners
S. No. Total Generation of AC Quantity
1 Average Weight in 1 AC 35 kg
2 Total usage of AC in no 1123
3 E-Waste of AC in Last 5
years in no.
4 Yearly AC Generation
in KG
14.23 kg
5 AC generation in MT 14.22 mt/year
Table 3. Total Generation of Refrigerator
S. No Total Generation of
1 Average Weight in 1 Fridge 48 kg
2 Total Usage of Refrigerator in no 9374
3 E-Waste of Fridge in Last 5 years
in no
4 Yearly Fridge Generation in KG 13256.77 kg/year
5 Refrigerator generation in MT 13.25 mt/year
Table 4. Total Generation of television
S. No. Total Generation of TV Quantity
1 Average Weight in 1 T.V. 36.2 kg
2 Total usage of TV in no. 8952
3 E-Waste of T.V. in Last years
in no
4 Yearly T.V. Generation in KG 1644.25 kg/year
5 Yearly T.V. Generation in MT 16.44 mt/year
Reuse and recycle
In this method, we can reduce the price of waste removal
and raw materials also deliver pro table waste income.
Repair facility of waste materials can be provided onsite
as well as off-site. Reverse osmosis, condensation, elec-
trolytic repair,  ltration are the physical and chemical
method which is used to recover and reuse the waste
Somi Khan and Savita Vyas
Sustainable product design
• Redesign the product:- use less amount of hazard-
ous materials, to design the product example rede-
sign the new computer which has  atter lighter
and integrated materials
Use of renewable materials and energy: - plant-
based chemical are used to make bio-based plastics.
Use non-toxic and non-renewable materials:-
material which are non-renewable use such that
they can recycle and reuse. Example some parts of
processor product as dell and Gateway lease.
Electronic waste has suffered major concern in maximum
countries in the world, mainly those countries where
electronics and electrical waste is imported as well as
unregulated function processed and generating signi -
cant opposing environmental effect the evaluation of the
study indicates that in 2016, electronic and equipment
waste is calculated and the total collection of e waste is
estimated in around 432 MT in Bhopal city which is in
the Madhya Pradesh and increases year by years. Accord-
ing to the report, 16 registered recycle they collect the
electronic and electrical waste and process the electronic
and electrical equipment waste in India. Reuse and recy-
cle system were implemented in India it is very important
issue for sustainability, globally and domestically both.
Authors would like to thank Dr.Mukesh Pandey Head
Department School of Energy & Environment Manage-
ment RGPV Bhopal for providing the facilities required
in completing the project work.
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Table 5. Total Generation of Washing Machine
S. No Total Generation of
Washing Machine
1 Average Weight 65 kg
2 Total Usage of Washing
Machine in no.
3 E-Waste of WM in Last 5 years
in no
4 Yearly WM Generation in KG 5389 kg/year
5 Washing Machine generation
in MT
53.89 mt/year