Biosci. Biotech. Res. Comm. 10(1): 125-131 (2017)
Evaluation of advanced potato clones derived from
breeding program in spring cultivated areas of Iran
Ramin Hajianfar,
* Davoud Hassanpanah
and Ali Ehsan Nosrati
Vegetable Research Center, Iranian Horticultural Science Research Institute, Agricultural Research Education
Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran
Seed and Plant Improvement Department, Ardabil Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and
Education Centre, AREEO Ardabil Iran
Seed and Plant Improvement Department, Hamadan Agricultural and Natural Research and Education
Centre Hamadan Iran
During this research the selected hybrid and open pollinated potato clones were evaluated in three regions including
Karaj, Hamadan and Ardabil of Iran. Quantitative and qualitative traits of the potato clones in the  eld experiments
were recorded and analyzed in comparison to the check potato cultivar Agria.
The results of combined analysis of places showed that among studied plant materials, 13 potato clones yielded
more than others and check cultivar. About half of these potato clones had the least un t tubers and their marketable
tubers yielded equal or more than 30 ton/ha. Most of potato clones with the highest marketable tuber were amongst
the superior ones in terms of the number of main stems. In this research, except for number of tuber per plant, other
traits signi cantly correlated with total and marketable yield. Interestingly, three potato clones among those with
the highest amount of marketable yield, produced maximum number of tuber per plant. The content of dry matter in
these clones was more than 22%, also. Totally, among studied potato clones in this research, nine clones with good
agronomical traits and suitable external characteristics were selected as promising clones for fresh consumption or
industrial utility.
*Corresponding Author:
Received 12
Jan, 2017
Accepted after revision 19
March, 2017
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Hajianfar, Hassanpanah and Nosrati
Potato (Solanum tuberosum) has been accounted as the
third most important food crop after wheat and rice
(Haverkort et al., 2009). Potatoes were introduced into
Europe in the 1570s, from Andes region and coastal
Chile. After a short time, this crop became widespread
in whole Europe and beyond to other parts of the world
(Hawkes and Francisco-Ortega, 1993; Pandey and Kau-
shik, 2003). Despite many potato cultivars available in
different sites, introducing of new varieties with desir-
able traits have been considered as a prior goal by
breeders. The new varieties must have been equipped
with some characters such as: yielding more marketable
potato with the minimum cost of producing, getting the
least damage from attack of pests and diseases, having
enough tolerance to the environmental stresses and giv-
ing more economical bene t than the current varieties.
Two basic steps are mentioned as premier ones in potato
breeding program: 1) selecting of superior parents for
crossing 2) selecting of derived clones with desirable
properties from segregating progenies (Gopal, 2015).
The  rst step in the plant breeding is creating a
population which contains suf cient variation in the
respected traits (Tabanao and Bernardo, 2005). The
variation between plant materials provides the effec-
tive selection. This variation could be created naturally
through open pollination or arti cially through hybrid
and more variation lead to better discriminating, which
is favourable in the plant breeding (Jozani et al., 2003).
In conventional potato breeding program, both
hybridization and open pollination (OP) could be used
for producing breeding population. However, clones
derived from hybrid usually produce tubers which are
more uniform, larger in size and have favorite quantity
and quality traits (Macaso-Khwaja and Peloquin, 1983).
Many different factors are involved in the crossing
between parents of potato in the hybridization method.
These could be counted as  owering, incompatibility,
ploidy level, endosperm balance number, heterozygo-
sity, general combining ability and speci c combining
ability (Bonierbale, 2007; Muthoni et al., 2014; Gopal,
2015). The selection of parents depends on the objective
of breeding program. New techniques and approaches
in plant breeding make it possible to hybridize differ-
ent potato genotypes in spite of limitation in crossing
(Muthoni et al., 2014). The main principle for breeding
is developing new cultivars which inherit good traits of
their parents. For this reason, it would be more achiev-
able when potato cultivars with complementary features
used as parents to create progenies and derived clones
with desirable traits. However, in some cases there is no
prior knowledge about the outcome of the crosses. So,
for compensating this defect and maximizing the num-
ber of derived clones with good characters, the number
of cross combination should be increased (Grüneberg
et al., 2009).
Potato breeding in different countries could be divided
into four to  ve main steps, on the basis of national
potato breeding programin successive years. The includ-
ing steps are choosing the appropriate parents, crossing,
primary evaluation of segregating population, advanced
and adaptability experiments. After crossing between
the appropriate parents, the primary evaluation could be
done in the net-houses and small scales of experimental
eld. Derivative potato clones are multiplied and evalu-
ated more detail in advanced and adaptability experi-
ments in different locations (Neele, 1991; Douches et al.,
2001; Clough et al., 2010). Multi-location variety trails
are generally done on the selected potato clones to eval-
uate their uniformity, qualitative and qualitative traits
and resistance to important regional diseases and pests.
Therefore, adaptability and stability of selected clones
are usually studied in locations with different environ-
mental condition in order to determining their capabili-
ties (Bradshaw et al., 2006; Bonierbale, 2007).
In this research, quantitative and qualitative traits
of 21 potato clones derived from 8 hybrids and 2 open
pollinated populations in the previous experiments were
studied in three different production regions in Iran.
Selected potato clones in the preliminary study derived
from crossing between commercial cultivars and OP
population of potatoes were evaluated in advanced
experiment (table 1). The clones were qualitatively and
quantitatively compared with cultivar Agria as check
cultivar in the experiment in three production site
including Karaj, Hamadan, and Ardabil in Iran. The
experiment was conducted according to the randomized
complete block design (RCBD) with twenty one treat-
ments as clones and cultivar with three replications, in
each site. The clones were planted in the plot with two
5 meter length sowing rows with density of 25 × 75cm
and planting depth of 10cm.
During the growth of potato clones in the  eld, some
agronomical and morphological characters such as plant
height, number of main stems, growth habit and length
of growth period were recorded. Five plants in each plot
were considered randomly and the mentioned characters
were calculated. Among the characters, growth habit is a
morphological trait and was recorded during forming of
Hajianfar, Hassanpanah and Nosrati
blossom to  owering of 50% of plants.Length of growth
period of clones was the time between sowing date till
physiological maturity which was indexed with natural
yellows of foliage decline at the end of growing season.
After harvesting of potato clones, other agronomi-
cal traits including total yield, marketable yield, number
and weight of tuber per plant, percent of dry matter were
To measure the marketable yield, the tiny tubers (less
than 28 mmin diameter) and rotted ones were separated,
then weighted and decreased from the total yield of each
plot. Total weight and number of tuber in each plot were
divided to the total number of plants in that plot and
resulted in number and weight of tuber per plant. To
determine percentage of dry matter, slices of four ran-
dom normal tubers of each plot with medium size were
prepared and weighted before and after drying in oven
with 75
for 48 hours. Then percentage of dry matter
was calculated with the below formula:
DM% = Wd / Wf ×100
DM: Percentage of dray matter
Wd: weight of dried slices
Wf: weight of fresh slices)
Normal tuber of each clones without any physiological
and biotic symptoms were chosen from the harvested
plots and external characters like color of skin and  esh,
tuber form, eye depth were alsodetermined.
2.3. Statistical analysis of experimental data
Data of agronomical traits in every region were recorded
and statistically analyzed with SAS software ver.9. The
combined analysis of variance (CANOVA) for each trait
in all regions was computed and comparison of means
was done with Duncan test. The correlation among traits
in the experiment was done by the use of spearman rat-
ing method, and positive or negative type of correlation
and its signi cance were determined (Zar, 1999).
Combined analysis of variance of experimental data in
all locations showed that there is a signi cant difference
at probability level 1% (P < 1%) between potato clones ×
regions in agronomical traits including total yield, mar-
ketable yield, number of main stems, plant height and
number of tuber per plant. The trait percentage of dry
matter was only signi cant at probability level 5% (P <
5%) in this concern (table 2).
According to the results of the comparison mean of
agronomical traits, potato clones 2501, 8005, 1502 and
6003 had the yield in the ranges between 35.19- 41.22
t./ha.These clones were signi cantly superior than check
cultivar, Agria, with 28.58 t./ha. and other potato clones
(table3). There was another group of potato clones
including 2508, 3504, 6001, 5504, 7508, 3505, 5503,
75013 and 25020 which didn’t have signi cant differ-
ence with Agria. However their yield increment to the
check, were in a wide range from 3% to 18%. By sub-
tracting the tiny and rotted tubers from the whole prod-
ucts and comparing the marketable product of potato
clones, it was noticed that clones no. 8005, 2501, 6003,
2508, 3504, 5504 and 6001 had the least amount of un t
Amount of dry matter in two superior clones includ-
ing 6003 and 6001 derived from hybrid Ajax × Kufri
Jyotii with 27.29% and 23.45% and one clone “75013”
Table 1. List of studied potato clones derived from different hybrids and
open pollinations.
clone no.
clone no.
Zolushka (OP*)800511
Ajax ×
Kufri Jyotii
Kufri Bahar ×
Kufri Jyotii
Kufri Bahar ×
clones (OP*)
Kufri Badeshah ×
Kufri Bahar
× Kufri Jyotii
Kufri Badeshah
400520Ajax × Concorde100110
*OP : Open pollination
Hajianfar, Hassanpanah and Nosrati
from OP, Khorasan, signi cantly differed from other
clones and the check.
Amount of the marketable yield in the superior clones
were in the range between 29.27 -37.79. On the other
hand, potato clone 75011 and cultivar Agria with 24.47
and 25.74 t/ha. respectively, had the least amount of
marketable yield.
The results of number of main stem per plant indi-
cated that 12 potato clones had 4 or more main stems
and grouped statistically in class A. Except for two
superior potato clones in marketable yield, the rest were
among the superior ones in the trait, number of main
The height of eleven potato clones was in the same
level as Agria. However about half of these clones were
taller than others and their heights were in the range of
60 to 65.16 centimeter (table 3).
Another index for determining the potential of a
potato clone is the number of tubers produced by single
plant which negatively correlate with the yield (table 4).
Table 2. Combined analysis of variance of data from the studied traits of potato clones in the regions
No. of tubers
/plant 2
matter 2
No. of
DF1Source of
15.548**132.084**33.559**1.067**120.525**143.283**20Potato clones
4.129ns132.084**42.774**1.741**146.797*146.207**6Replication× region
6.695**144.066**20.838*1.463**100.587**84.555**40Potato Clone × region
1: Degree of freedom
2: Data are mean squares of the traits
ns, *,**: Not signi cant and signi cant at 1% and 5% probability level, respectively.
Table 3. Mean comparison of data from different traits of the potato clones in three regions with Duncan test
No. tubers/
Plant height
Dry Matter
Total yield
Hajianfar, Hassanpanah and Nosrati
Seven potato clones including 6003, 6001, 75013, 7508,
3504, 3505 and 25020 had the most tuber number per
plant among the studied clones and the check cultivar.
Interestingly, three superior clones in terms of market-
able yield were among this group.
In addition to the agronomical traits, a complex set
of external quality traits is required for fresh market and
processed potatoes. Some potato clones from both hybrid
and OP including 2501, 2508, 25020, 6003, 6001, 3503,
3504, 1502, 5503, 8005, 7508, 75013 were detected
as suitable clones in external and growth characters
including round to oval shape, cream to yellow color
and super cial eye. The growth habit of this group was
semi-erect to erect. Except for 1502 which was deter-
mined as late mature clone with 140-150 days of growth
period, the rest were early to mid - late mature potato
clones with the ranging of 100- 140 growth period.
The result of correlation between traits in the experi-
ment showed that there is a positive and mostly sig-
ni cant correlation among total, marketable yield and
studied traits except for tuber per plant. The trait tuber
per plant correlates in negative not only with total and
marketable yield (with amount of - 0.06 and - 0.08) but
also plant height with the amount of - 0.230.
All traits except for plant height were in positive cor-
relation with the percentage of dry matter. Among the
positive traits, it seems that marketable yield dramati-
cally correlate with dry matter in the amount of 0.199
at 1% probability level (P< 1%). On the other hand,
the number of main stems didn’t have any signi cant
impact on the percentage of dry matter (table 4).
The phenotype of a potato plant is somewhat variable
in relation to many traits of interest for potato breeders.
The effect of environment on quantitative and qualita-
tive traits such as yield, tuber number, tuber size, dry
matter, and processing quality confront challenges that
are hard to suppress. Indeed, many quantitative loci
have been detected for different traits, but few are usu-
ally stable across different environments. In order to
get a proper perception of the environmental effect on
the traits, it requires testing the breeding potato clones
in multiple locations (Schäfer-Pregl et al., 1998). Inter-
crossing of heterozygous tetraploid clones and com-
mercial cultivars are more common in classical potato
breeding (Bradshaw and Mackay, 1994). In this research,
advanced potato clones selected from hybrids of com-
mercial cultivars and open pollinated population were
evaluated for different traits in three production sites in
Iran. The most number of studied clones related to hybrid
Kufri Bahar × Concorde and OP population “Kho-
rasan”. Nevertheless superior clones were among dif-
ferent hybrids (Ajax × Kufri Jyotii, Kufri Badeshah ×
Kufri Bahar and Kufri Bahar × Kufri Jyotii) and one OP
(Zolushka). In breeding of potato, yield is the main trait
that must be considered from early steps.
In addition to the yield, tuber quality and disease
resistance are the main focus during cultivar devel-
opment (Jansky, 2009). Two traits are related to yield
in potato including total and marketable yield. Potato
breeder usually measure marketable yield and believe
that it is more important than total yield. In this study
most of the potato clones from both Hybrid and OP,
yielded more than check cultivar, Agria. Comparing
of total yield among potato clones showed that except
three potato clones, all were superior to Agria.
However after subtracting the wasted and tiny tubers
from total yield, the means of marketable yield of all
studied clones were higher than the check (table 3).
During a breeding program on potato, three supe-
rior clones with good quantity and quality traits were
determined among eighteen promising potato clones
in Ardabil province of Iran (Hassanpanah and Has-
sanabadi, 2012). In other research, stability of thirteen
advanced potato clones for high marketable yield in dif-
ferent environmental condition was studied by GGE Bi-
plot and AMMI models. Among the potato clones, three
with high stability performance and good characters to
the check cultivars were selected (Hassanpanah and Has-
sanabadi, 2014).
In potato breeding, the trait main stem is another
important character. As a matter of fact, more produc-
tivity and yield could be achieved while a plant produce
Table 4. Correlationbetween different traits of potato clones by spearman method
matter %
No. Main
- 0.06ns0.194**0.174*0.124 *0.954**-Total yield
- 0.080ns0.184*0.199 **0.099ns--Marketableyield
0.018ns0.117ns0.005ns---No. Main stems
0.463**- 0.358**----Dry matter
- 0.230**-----Plant height
------Tubers/ plant
ns,** and * : not signi cant, signi cant at 1% and 5% probability level.
Hajianfar, Hassanpanah and Nosrati
more strong main stems (Cutter, 1978; Meltzer, 1992).
Potato plants with more main stems not only make ben-
e t of more photosynthetic capacity but also the stored
light photosynthetic compounds in the leaves could be
assimilate to the daughter tubers (Moorby, 1970). There
was a positive and signi cant correlation between total
yields and number of main stems. The potato clones
which yielded more than others and ranked as group A
statistically, were regarded among the top eleven clones
in number of main stem as well (table 3).
Although a positive correlation exists between the
number of main stems and marketable yield, it was not
signi cant. Two potato clones including 1502 and 5504
which were in the group of high marketable yield clones,
didn’t have main stem as many as the eleven superior
clones. Probably having high percentage of tubers in
the range of normal size and tolerant to diseases and
stresses which cause rotting and necrosis of tubers could
compensate the less number of main stems in these
potato clones.
Height of those potato clones which produced more
total and marketable yield, were in the range of 55 to
65cm. As the table 4 showed plant height correlate with
the yield of potato clones. It is deduced that plant height
has a good impact on the yield in potato. The results of
other research showed that the superior clones usually
stand higher with uniformity in growing (Hassanpanah
and Hassanabadi, 2014). These characters especially in
the beginning of growth stage were prominent for the
top potato clones.
One of the breeding traits which have considerable
importance in potato processing is dry matter content.
This trait must be considered during breeding for deter-
mining the suitability of clones for crisps and french-
fries. The least amount for potato processing usage is
about nineteen percent. The more this amount results
in better processing of potato tubers. Consequently,
less cooking time, better texture of  esh will result and
nally less oil will be used for chips and french-fries
(Vander Woude, 1998). Measuring dry matter of potato
clones in this study showed that they were more than
nineteen percent.
Two clones related to hybrid Ajax ×Kufri Jyotii and
one OP from Khorasan population had the highest con-
tent of dry matter. Interestingly the two hybrid clones
were amongst the superior clones in terms of marketable
yield as well. Among different traits in these study only
number of tuber per plant didn’t have any correlation
with total and marketable yield. However, it has a posi-
tive and signi cant correlation with dry matter content.
All of top potato clones produced the most tubers per
plant were among the superior clones with the highest
dry matter content. Most of potato clones which were
superior in yield and dry matter have a growth period
between 120-140 days and classi ed as early to mid-late
mature potato.
The long period of growth and fresh foliage of potato
clones has a great effect on bulking of tubers and
increasing in yield. However in the breeding program
early to mid-late mature potato clones or late-mature
ones that early harvesting of their crops has no impact
on their yield or dry matter is recommended specially for
off-season cultivation (Silva and Pinto, 2005).
Altogether, potato clones including 8005, 6003, 2501,
6001,3503, 3504, 75013, 7508, 2508 with good agro-
nomical traits including high yield or dry matter and
suitable external quality traits such as cream or yellow
esh color, round-oval shape, super cial eye and early
to mid-maturity were selected and could be used for
fresh or industrial consumption.
The authors are thankful to Director General of Seed and
Plant Improvement Institute in Karaj and President of
Agricultural Research Center in Ardabil and Hamadan
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